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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 15, 2018

 

Registration No. 333-            

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM S-3

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 


 

TREVENA, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

26-1469215
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)

 

955 Chesterbrook Blvd., Suite 200
Chesterbrook, PA 19087
(610) 354-8840

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 


 

John M. Limongelli, Esq.
Senior Vice President, General Counsel & Chief Administrative Officer
Trevena, Inc.
955 Chesterbrook Blvd., Suite 200
Chesterbrook, PA 19087
(610) 354-8840

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

Copies to:

 

Brent B. Siler, Esq.
Derek O. Colla, Esq.
Cooley LLP
1299 Pennsylvania Ave NW, Suite 700
Washington, DC 20001
Telephone: (202) 842-7800
Fax: (202) 842-7899

 


 

From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement

(Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public)

 


 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. ¨

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box. x

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨

 

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ¨

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ¨

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer ¨

Accelerated filer x

 

 

Non-accelerated filer ¨ (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

Smaller reporting company o

 

 

 

Emerging growth Company x

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by checkmark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act x

 


 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

Title of each class of securities to be
registered

 

Amount to be
Registered

 

Proposed Maximum
Offering Price per
Unit

 

Proposed Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price

 

Amount of
Registration Fee (1)

 

Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share

 

 

(2)

 

(3)

 

(3)

 

Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share

 

 

(2)

 

(3)

 

(3)

 

Debt Securities

 

 

(2)

 

(3)

 

(3)

 

Warrants

 

 

(2)

 

(3)

 

(3)

 

Total

 

 

(2)

 

 

$

175,000,000

 

$

(4)

 



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(1)          Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, the securities registered pursuant to this Registration Statement include unsold securities previously registered by the Registrant on the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-3 (Registration No. 333-208538) originally filed on December 14, 2015 and declared effective on January 7, 2016 (the “Prior Registration Statement”). The Prior Registration Statement registered the offer and sale of an indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock, such indeterminate principal amount of debt securities and such indeterminate number of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities as shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $250,000,000, $176,789,035 of which securities remain unsold as the date of filing of this Registration Statement (the “Unsold Securities”). $175,000,000 of the Unsold Securities are referred to herein as the “Rollover Unsold Securities and the remaining $1,789,035 of Unsold Securities are referred to herein as the “Remaining Unsold Securities.” Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act, the filing fee of $18,211 relating to the Rollover Unsold Securities under the Prior Registration Statement will continue to be applied to such securities registered pursuant to this Registration Statement. To the extent that, after the filing date hereof and prior to the effectiveness of this Registration Statement, the Registrant sells any Unsold Securities in excess of the Remaining Unsold Securities pursuant to the Prior Registration Statement, the Registrant will identify in a pre-effective amendment to this Registration Statement the updated amount of Rollover Unsold Securities from the Prior Registration Statement to be included in this Registration Statement pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6). Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act, the offering of the Unsold Securities under the Prior Registration Statement will be deemed terminated as of the date of effectiveness of this Registration Statement.

 

(2)          There are being registered hereunder such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock, such indeterminate principal amount of debt securities and such indeterminate number of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities as shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $175,000,000. If any debt securities are issued at an original issue discount, then the principal amount of such debt securities shall be in such greater amount as shall result in an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $175,000,000, less the aggregate dollar amount of all securities previously issued hereunder. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or as units with other securities registered hereunder. The securities registered also include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock and amount of debt securities as may be issued upon conversion of or exchange for preferred stock or debt securities that provide for conversion or exchange, upon exercise of warrants or pursuant to the antidilution provisions of any such securities. In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act, the shares being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock as may be issuable with respect to the shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.

 

(3)          The proposed maximum aggregate offering price per class of security will be determined from time to time by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D. of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.

 

(4)          Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6), a filing fee of $18,211 relating to the Rollover Unsold Securities under the Prior Registration Statement was previously paid and no additional registration fee is required in connection with the filing of this Registration Statement. See footnote (1) above.

 


 

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment that specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 



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EXPLANATORY NOTE

 

This registration statement contains:

 

·                  a base prospectus which covers the offering, issuance and sale by the registrant of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $175,000,000 of the registrant’s common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants and/or units; and

 

·                  a sales agreement prospectus covering the offering, issuance and sale by the registrant of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $50,000,000 of the registrant’s common stock that may be issued and sold from time to time under a sales agreement with Cowen and Company, LLC.

 

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The sales agreement prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus. The $50,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold by the registrant under the sales agreement prospectus is included in the $175,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by the registrant under the base prospectus.

 



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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed.  We may not sell these securities or accept an offer to buy these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective.  This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities, and it is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state where such offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED JUNE 15, 2018

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

$175,000,000

 

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

 

From time to time, we may offer up to $175,000,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings. We may also offer securities as may be issuable upon conversion, redemption, repurchase, exchange or exercise of any securities registered hereunder, including any applicable antidilution provisions.

 

This prospectus provides a general description of the securities we may offer.  Each time we offer securities, we will provide specific terms of the securities offered in a supplement to this prospectus.  We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings.  The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus.  You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as any documents incorporated by reference, before you invest in any of the securities being offered.

 

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of any securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “TRVN.” On June 14, 2018, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $1.74 per share.  The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or any securities market or other exchange of the securities, if any, covered by the prospectus supplement.

 

We will sell these securities directly to investors, through agents designated from time to time or to or through underwriters or dealers, on a continuous or delayed basis. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus.  If any agents or underwriters are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such agents or underwriters and any applicable fees, commissions, discounts or over-allotment options will be set forth in a prospectus supplement.  The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

 


 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus as described on page 5 of this prospectus.

 


 

NEITHER THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION NOR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THESE SECURITIES OR DETERMINED IF THIS PROSPECTUS IS TRUTHFUL OR COMPLETE.  ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.

 


 

The date of this prospectus is                                   , 2018.

 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

i

SUMMARY

1

RISK FACTORS

5

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

5

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

5

USE OF PROCEEDS

6

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

6

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

11

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

18

LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

20

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

23

LEGAL MATTERS

24

EXPERTS

24

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

25

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

25

DISCLOSURE OF COMMISSION’S POSITION ON INDEMNIFICATION FOR SECURITIES ACT LIABILITY

26

 



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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is a part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a total aggregate offering price of $175,000,000. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer.

 

Each time we sell securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering.  We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings.  The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in any documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should read this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, together with the information incorporated herein by reference as described under the heading “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference,” before investing in any of the securities offered.

 

THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO CONSUMMATE A SALE OF SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.

 

Neither we, nor any agent, underwriter or dealer has authorized any person to give any information or to make any representation other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. This prospectus, any applicable supplement to this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate, nor do this prospectus, any applicable supplement to this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation in such jurisdiction.

 

You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate on any date subsequent to the date set forth on the front of the document or that any information we have incorporated by reference is correct on any date subsequent to the date of the document incorporated by reference, even though this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is delivered, or securities are sold, on a later date.

 

This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

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SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights selected information from this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that you need to consider in making your investment decision. You should carefully read the entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

Unless the context requires otherwise, references in this prospectus to “Trevena,” “company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Trevena, Inc.

 

Company Overview

 

We are a biopharmaceutical company developing innovative therapies based on breakthrough science to benefit patients and healthcare providers confronting serious medical conditions.

 

Using our proprietary product platform, we have identified and are developing the following product candidates:

 

·        Oliceridine injection:  We are developing oliceridine, a G protein biased ligand of the μ opioid receptor, for the management of moderate-to-severe acute pain where intravenous, or IV, administration is preferred.  In February 2017, we announced positive top-line results from our Phase 3 APOLLO-1 and APOLLO-2 pivotal efficacy studies of oliceridine in moderate-to-severe acute pain following bunionectomy and abdominoplasty, respectively. In both studies, all dose regimens achieved their primary endpoint of statistically greater analgesic efficacy than placebo, as measured by responder rate.  In July 2017, we announced that we had completed enrollment in the Phase 3 open-label ATHENA safety study to support the new drug application, or NDA, for oliceridine.  In the study, 768 patients were administered oliceridine to manage pain associated with a wide range of procedures and diagnoses. In January 2018, we announced that the United States Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, had accepted the NDA we submitted for oliceridine.  The FDA also indicated that the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, or PDUFA, review date for the oliceridine NDA is November 2, 2018 and that it plans to hold an advisory committee meeting to discuss the NDA. If oliceridine ultimately receives regulatory approval, we plan to commercialize it in the United States, either on our own or with a commercial partner, for use in acute care settings such as hospitals and ambulatory surgery centers; outside the United States, we plan to commercialize oliceridine in certain countries with a commercial partner and we recently announced license agreements with partners in South Korea and China.

 

·        TRV250:  We are developing TRV250, a G protein biased ligand targeting the δ-receptor, as a compound with a potential first-in-class, non-narcotic mechanism for the treatment of migraine. TRV250 also may have utility in a range of other central nervous system, or CNS, indications. Because TRV250 selectively targets the δ-receptor, we believe it will not have the addiction liability of conventional opioids or other μ-opioid related adverse effects like those seen with morphine or oxycodone. In the second quarter of 2017, we began a Phase I study of TRV250 in the United Kingdom in healthy volunteers; in the first quarter of 2018, we completed dosing in this study and are awaiting final top-line results.

 

We also have identified and have completed the initial Phase 1 studies for TRV734, an orally administered new chemical entity expected to be developed for first-line treatment of moderate-to-severe acute and chronic pain. We intend to continue to focus our efforts for TRV734 on securing a development and commercialization partner for this asset. We also are evaluating a set of novel S1P modulators that may offer a new, non-narcotic approach to managing chronic pain. We expect to complete characterization of the lead compounds in 2018 to determine if any merit IND-enabling studies to support Phase 1 clinical trials.

 

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Corporate Information

 

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in November 2007. Our principal executive office is located at 955 Chesterbrook Blvd., Suite 200, Chesterbrook, PA 19087. Our telephone number is (610) 354-8840. Our website address is www.trevena.com. The information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider any information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website as part of this prospectus or in deciding whether to purchase our common stock.

 

“Trevena”, the Trevena logo and other trademarks or service marks of Trevena, Inc. appearing in this prospectus are the property of Trevena, Inc. This prospectus contains additional trade names, trademarks and service marks of others, which are the property of their respective owners.

 

The Securities We May Offer

 

We may offer shares of our common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities and warrants to purchase any of such securities, up to a total aggregate offering price of $175,000,000 from time to time in one or more offerings under this prospectus, together with any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the relevant offering.  This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer.  Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

·                  designation or classification;

 

·                  aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;

 

·                  maturity, if applicable;

 

·                  original issue discount, if any;

 

·                  rates and times of payment of interest or dividends, if any;

 

·                  redemption, conversion, exchange or sinking fund terms, if any;

 

·                  conversion or exchange prices or rates, if any, and, if applicable, any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the conversion or exchange prices or rates and in the securities or other property receivable upon conversion or exchange;

 

·                  ranking, if applicable;

 

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·                  restrictive covenants, if any;

 

·                  voting or other rights, if any; and

 

·                  important U.S. federal income tax considerations.

 

The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents we have incorporated by reference.  However, no prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

We may sell the securities directly to investors or through underwriters, dealers or agents.  We, and our underwriters or agents, reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities.  If we do offer securities through underwriters or agents, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

 

·                  the names of those underwriters or agents;

 

·                  applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;

 

·                  details regarding over-allotment options, if any; and

 

·                  the estimated net proceeds to us.

 

Common Stock.  We may issue shares of our common stock from time to time. Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote per share for the election of directors and on all other matters that require stockholder approval. Subject to any preferential rights of any then outstanding preferred stock, in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock are entitled to share ratably in the assets remaining after payment of liabilities and the liquidation preferences of any then outstanding preferred stock. Our common stock does not carry any preemptive rights enabling a holder to subscribe for, or receive shares of, any class of our common stock or any other securities convertible into shares of any class of our common stock, or any redemption rights.

 

Preferred Stock.  We may issue shares of our preferred stock from time to time, in one or more series. Under our certificate of incorporation, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by stockholders, to designate up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the rights, preferences, privileges, qualifications and restrictions granted to or imposed upon the preferred stock, including dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, rights and terms of redemption, liquidation preference and sinking fund terms, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of the common stock. To date, none of the 5,000,000 authorized shares of preferred stock have been designated by our board of directors.  Convertible preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock or exchangeable for our other securities.  Conversion may be mandatory or at the option of the holders of our preferred stock and would be at prescribed conversion rates.

 

Our board of directors will fix the rights, preferences, privileges, qualifications and restrictions of the preferred stock of each series that we sell under this prospectus and applicable prospectus supplements in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will incorporate by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering before the issuance of the related series of preferred stock. We urge you to read the prospectus supplements (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of preferred stock being offered, as well as the complete certificate of designation that contains the terms of the applicable series of preferred stock.

 

Debt Securities.  We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. The senior debt securities will rank equally with any

 

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other unsecured and unsubordinated debt. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in right of payment, to the extent and in the manner described in the instrument governing the debt, to all of our senior indebtedness. Convertible debt securities will be convertible into our common stock or preferred stock. Conversion may be mandatory or at the holder’s option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.

 

The debt securities will be issued under one or more documents called indentures, which are contracts between us and a national banking association or other eligible party, as trustee. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the debt securities. We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of debt securities being offered, as well as the complete indentures that contain the terms of the debt securities. A form of indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

 

Warrants.  We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or together with common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from these securities. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the warrants. We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the particular series of warrants being offered, as well as the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants. Forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants being offered have been filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

 

We will evidence each series of warrants by warrant certificates that we will issue. Warrants may be issued under an applicable warrant agreement that we enter into with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent, if applicable, in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of warrants being offered.

 

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RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully review the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, as updated by our annual, quarterly and other reports and documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, before deciding whether to purchase any of the securities being registered pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities, and the occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also significantly impair our business operations.

 

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus, each prospectus supplement and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus and each prospectus supplement contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, that involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Although our forward-looking statements reflect the good faith judgment of our management, these statements can only be based on facts and factors currently known by us. Consequently, these forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, and actual results and outcomes may differ materially from results and outcomes discussed in the forward-looking statements.

 

Forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking words such as “believes,” “expects,” “hopes,” “may,” “will,” “plan,” “intends,” “estimates,” “could,” “should,” “would,” “continue,” “seeks,” “pro forma,” or “anticipates,” or other similar words (including their use in the negative), or by discussions of future matters such as the development of new products, technology enhancements, possible collaborations and other statements that are not historical. These statements include but are not limited to statements under the captions “Business,” “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and in other sections incorporated by reference from our Annual Report on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, as applicable, as well as our other filings with the SEC. You should be aware that the occurrence of any of the events discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in any applicable prospectus supplement and any documents incorporated by reference herein or therein could substantially harm our business, operating results and financial condition and that if any of these events occurs, it could adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities.

 

The cautionary statements made in this prospectus are intended to be applicable to all related forward-looking statements wherever they may appear in this prospectus or in any prospectus supplement or any documents incorporated by reference herein or therein. We urge you not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date they are made. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update our forward-looking statements, even if new information becomes available in the future.

 

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

 

The following table sets forth our ratio of earnings to fixed charges and the ratio of our combined fixed charges and preference dividends to earnings for each of the periods indicated. The following table is qualified by the more detailed information appearing in the computation table set forth in Exhibit 12.1 to the registration statement of which this prospectus is part and the historical financial statements, including the notes to those financial statements, incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We have paid no dividends on preferred shares during the periods indicated. Therefore, the ratios of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred dividends are the same as the ratios of earnings to fixed charges.

 

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Year Ended December 31,

 

Three Months
Ended
March 31,

 

 

 

2013

 

2014

 

2015

 

2016

 

2017

 

2018

 

Ratio of earnings to fixed charges

 

N/A

 

N/A

 

N/A

 

N/A

 

N/A

 

N/A

 

Ratio of combined fixed charges and preference dividends to earnings

 

N/A

 

N/A

 

N/A

 

N/A

 

N/A

 

N/A

 

 

For purposes of computing the ratio of earnings to fixed charges and the ratio of our combined fixed charges and preference dividends to earnings, earnings consist of income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes plus fixed charges. Fixed charges consist of interest expense on indebtedness and an estimate of the interest within rental expense.

 

We did not record earnings for the three months ended March 31, 2018 or any of the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, and 2013. Accordingly, our earnings were insufficient to cover fixed charges for such periods and we are unable to disclose a ratio of earnings to fixed charges for such periods. The dollar amount of the deficiency in earnings available for fixed charges for the three months ended March 31, 2018 was $9.0 million and for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, and 2013 was $71.9 million, $103.0 million, $50.5 million, $49.7 million, and $23.3 million, respectively.

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We will retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered hereby. Except as described in any prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered hereby for general corporate purposes, which may include research and development, capital expenditures, working capital and general and administrative expenses. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire or invest in businesses, products and technologies that are complementary to our own, although we have no current plans, commitments or agreements with respect to any acquisitions as of the date of this prospectus. We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus our intended use for the net proceeds received from the sale of any securities sold pursuant to the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus. Pending these uses, we intend to invest the net proceeds primarily in a money market mutual fund with a large financial institution.

 

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

As of the date of this prospectus, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue 200,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share. As of June 14, 2018, 72,582,321 shares of common stock were outstanding and no shares of preferred stock were outstanding.

 

The following summary describes the material terms of our capital stock. The description of capital stock is qualified by reference to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws, which are incorporated by reference as exhibits into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

Common Stock

 

Voting. Our common stock is entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders, including the election of directors, and does not have cumulative voting rights. Accordingly, the

 

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holders of a majority of the shares of our common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election.

 

Dividends. Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then-outstanding preferred stock, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our Board of Directors out of legally available funds.

 

Liquidation. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities, subject to the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any outstanding shares of preferred stock.

 

Rights and Preferences. Holders of our common stock have no preemptive, conversion or subscription rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

 

Fully Paid and Nonassessable.  All of our outstanding shares of common stock are fully paid and nonassessable.

 

Preferred Stock

 

Under our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by stockholders, to designate up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix or alter, from time to time, the designations, powers and rights of each series of preferred stock and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of any series of preferred stock, including dividend rights, dividend rate, conversion rights, voting rights, rights and terms of redemption (including sinking fund provisions), redemption price or prices, and the liquidation preference of any wholly unissued series of preferred stock, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of the common stock, and to establish the number of shares constituting any such series.  To date, none of the 5,000,000 authorized shares of preferred stock have been designated by our board of directors.

 

Our board of directors will fix the rights, preferences, privileges, qualifications and restrictions of the preferred stock of each series that we sell under this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplements in the certificate of designation relating to each such series. We will incorporate by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or as an exhibit to one or more Current Reports on Form 8-K, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering before the issuance of the related series of preferred stock. This description will include:

 

·                  the title and stated value;

·                  the number of shares we are offering;

·                  the liquidation preference per share;

·                  the purchase price per share;

·                  the dividend rate per share, dividend period, payment date or dates and method of calculation for dividends;

·                  whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;

·                  our right, if any, to defer payment of dividends and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

·                  the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any;

·                  the provisions for a sinking fund, if any;

·                  the provisions for redemption or repurchase, if applicable, and any restrictions on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights;

·                  any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

·                  whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock or other securities of ours, including warrants, and, if applicable, the conversion price, or how it will be calculated, and under what circumstances and the mechanism by which it may be adjusted, and the conversion period;

 

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·                  whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities or other securities of ours, and, if applicable, the exchange price, or how it will be calculated, and under what circumstances it may be adjusted, and the exchange period;

·                  voting rights, if any;

·                  preemptive rights, if any;

·                  restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment, if any;

·                  whether interests in the preferred stock will be represented by depositary shares;

·                  a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

·                  the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs;

·                  any limitations on issuances of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on parity with the series of preferred stock being issued as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs; and

·                  any other specific terms, rights, preferences, privileges, qualifications or limitations of, or restrictions on the preferred stock.

 

If we issue and sell shares of preferred stock pursuant to this prospectus, together with any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, the shares will be fully paid and nonassessable and will not have, or be subject to, any preemptive or similar rights.

 

The laws of the state of Delaware, the state of our incorporation, provide that the holders of preferred stock will have the right to vote separately as a class on any proposal involving fundamental changes in the rights of holders of such preferred stock. This right is in addition to any voting rights that may be provided for in the applicable certificate of designation.

 

The issuance of preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power, conversion or other rights of holders of common stock and reduce the likelihood that common stockholders will receive dividend payments and payments upon liquidation. Preferred stock could be issued quickly with terms designed to delay, deter or prevent a change in control of our company or make removal of management more difficult.  Additionally, the issuance of preferred stock may have the effect of decreasing the market price of our common stock.

 

Warrants

 

We have outstanding an immediately exercisable warrant to purchase 20,161 shares of our common stock at an exercise price of $6.20 per share, which expires in December 2021. We refer to this warrant as the Comerica warrant. The Comerica warrant also contains provisions for the adjustment of the exercise price and the number of shares issuable upon the exercise of the warrant in the event of certain stock dividends, stock splits, reorganizations, reclassifications and consolidations.

 

 In connection with entering into a credit facility in September 2014, we issued to the lenders and the placement agent warrants to purchase an aggregate of 7,678 shares of our common stock, of which warrants to purchase 5,728 shares remain outstanding as of the date of this filing. These warrants are exercisable immediately and have an exercise price of $5.8610 per share.  These warrants may be exercised on a cashless basis and will terminate on the earlier of September 19, 2024 or the closing of a merger or consolidation transaction in which we are not the surviving entity. In connection with subsequent draws of additional funds under this credit facility, we issued to the lenders and the placement agent additional warrants to purchase an aggregate of 34,961 and 62,241 shares of our common stock in December 2015 and March 2017, respectively. The December 2015 warrants have substantially the same terms as those noted above, and have an exercise price of $10.6190 per share and an expiration date of December 23, 2025. The March 2017 warrants have substantially the same terms as those noted above, and have an exercise price of $3.6150 per share and an expiration date of March 31, 2027.

 

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Anti-Takeover Provisions

 

Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years after the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, with the following exceptions:

 

·                  before such date, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

·                  upon completion of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction began, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding, but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder, those shares owned (i) by persons who are directors and also officers and (ii) employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

 

·                  on or after such date, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.

 

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In general, Section 203 defines a “business combination” to include the following:

 

·                  any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

 

·                  any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;

 

·                  subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;

 

·                  any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock or any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or

 

·                  the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits by or through the corporation.

 

In general, Section 203 defines an “interested stockholder” as an entity or person who, together with the person’s affiliates and associates, beneficially owns, or within three years prior to the time of determination of interested stockholder status did own, 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation.

 

Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, or our restated certificate, provides for our board of directors to be divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms. Only one class of directors will be elected at each annual meeting of our stockholders, with the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective three-year terms. Because our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights, stockholders holding a majority of the shares of common stock outstanding will be able to elect all of our directors. Our restated certificate and our amended and restated bylaws, or our restated bylaws, also provide that directors may be removed by the stockholders only for cause upon the vote of 66 2/3% or more of our outstanding common stock. Furthermore, the authorized number of directors may be changed only by resolution of the board of directors, and vacancies and newly created directorships on the board of directors may, except as otherwise required by law or determined by the board, only be filled by a majority vote of the directors then serving on the board, even though less than a quorum.

 

Our restated certificate and restated bylaws also provide that all stockholder actions must be effected at a duly called meeting of stockholders and will eliminate the right of stockholders to act by written consent without a meeting. Our restated bylaws also provide that only our chairman of the board, chief executive officer or the board of directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of authorized directors may call a special meeting of stockholders.

 

Our restated bylaws also provide that stockholders seeking to present proposals before a meeting of stockholders to nominate candidates for election as directors at a meeting of stockholders must provide timely advance notice in writing, and will specify requirements as to the form and content of a stockholder’s notice.

 

Our restated certificate and restated bylaws provide that the stockholders cannot amend many of the provisions described above except by a vote of 66 2/3% or more of our outstanding common stock.

 

The combination of these provisions makes it more difficult for our existing stockholders to replace our board of directors as well as for another party to obtain control of us by replacing our board of directors. Since our board of directors has the power to retain and discharge our officers, these provisions could also make it more difficult for existing stockholders or another party to effect a change in management. In addition, the authorization of undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to effect a change of control of our company.

 

These provisions are intended to enhance the likelihood of continued stability in the composition of our board of directors and its policies and to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to reduce our vulnerability to hostile takeovers and to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. However, such provisions could have the effect of discouraging others from making tender offers for our shares and may have the effect of delaying changes in our control or management. As a consequence, these provisions may also inhibit fluctuations in the market price of our stock that could result from

 

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actual or rumored takeover attempts. We believe that the benefits of these provisions, including increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure our company, outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging takeover proposals, because negotiation of takeover proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company. The transfer agent’s address is 17 Battery Place, 8th Floor, New York, NY 10004.  The transfer agent for any series of preferred stock that we may offer under this prospectus will be named and described in the prospectus supplement for that series.

 

Listing on the Nasdaq Global Select Market

 

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “TRVN.”

 

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any debt securities offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the indenture, we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.

 

We will issue the debt securities under the indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the indenture.  The indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act.  We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

 

The following summary of material provisions of the debt securities and the indenture is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities.  We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities.

 

General

 

The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. It provides that we may issue debt securities up to the principal amount that we may authorize and may be in any currency or currency unit that we may designate. Except for the limitations on consolidation, merger and sale of all or substantially all of our assets contained in the indenture, the terms of the indenture do not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to give holders of any debt securities protection against changes in our operations, financial condition or transactions involving us.

 

We may issue the debt securities issued under the indenture as “discount securities,” which means they may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. These debt securities, as well as other debt securities that are not issued at a discount, may be issued with “original issue discount,” or OID, for U.S. federal income tax purposes because of interest payment and other characteristics or terms of the debt securities. Material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to debt securities issued with OID will be described in more detail in any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

 

·                  the title of the series of debt securities;

 

·                  any limit upon the aggregate principal amount that may be issued;

 

·                  the maturity date or dates;

 

·                  the form of the debt securities of the series;

 

·                  the applicability of any guarantees;

 

·                  whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

·                  whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

 

·                  if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such debt  securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

 

·                  the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

·                  our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

·                  if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

 

·                  the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;

 

·                  the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

·                  any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the debt securities of that series and any security for our obligations with respect to such debt securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of debt securities of that series;

 

·                  whether the debt securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a global security or securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual securities; and the depositary for such global security or securities;

 

·                  if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange

 

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features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange;

 

·                  if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of debt securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

·                  additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

 

·                  additions to or changes in the events of default with respect to the securities and any change in the right of the trustee or the holders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such securities to be due and payable;

 

·                  additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

 

·                  additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;

 

·                  additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture;

 

·                  the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

 

·                  whether interest will be payable in cash or additional debt securities at our or the holders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

 

·                  the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any, and principal amounts of the debt securities of the series to any holder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

 

·                  any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the debt securities of the series; and

 

·                  any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of the indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

 

Conversion or Exchange Rights

 

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities.  We will include provisions as to settlement upon conversion or exchange and whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

 

Consolidation, Merger or Sale

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indenture will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of our assets as an entirety or substantially as an entirety.  However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets (other than a subsidiary of ours) must assume all of our obligations under the indenture or the debt securities, as appropriate.

 

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Events of Default under the Indenture

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

·                  if we fail to pay any installment of interest on any series of debt securities, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by us in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

·                  if we fail to pay the principal of, or premium, if any, on any series of debt securities as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to such series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

·                  if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement contained in the debt securities or the indenture, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such is a notice of default thereunder, from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

 

·                  if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.

 

If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, of such series of debt securities due and payable immediately.  If an event of default specified in the last bullet point above occurs with respect to us, the principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.

 

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture.  Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.

 

Subject to the terms of the indenture, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity.  The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

·                  the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

 

·                  subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

 

A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:

 

·                  the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

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·                  the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request;

 

·                  such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred by the trustee in compliance with the request; and

 

·                  the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.

 

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

 

We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indenture.

 

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters:

 

·                  to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture or in the debt securities of any series;

 

·                  to comply with the provisions described above under “Description of Debt Securities—Consolidation, Merger or Sale”;

 

·                  to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities;

 

·                  to add to our covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture;

 

·                  to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;

 

·                  to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect;

 

·                  to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the debt securities of any series as provided above under “Description of Debt Securities—General” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;

 

·                  to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under any indenture by a successor trustee; or

 

·                  to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

 

In addition, under the indenture, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected.  However, unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement

 

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applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

·                  extending the fixed maturity of any debt securities of any series;

 

·                  reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption of any series of any debt securities; or

 

·                  reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.

 

Discharge

 

The indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

 

·                  provide for payment;

 

·                  register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

 

·                  replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

 

·                  pay principal of and premium and interest on any debt securities of the series;

 

·                  maintain paying agencies;

 

·                  hold monies for payment in trust;

 

·                  recover excess money held by the trustee;

 

·                  compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

 

·                  appoint any successor trustee.

 

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

 

Form, Exchange and Transfer

 

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof.  The indenture provides that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, or another depositary named by us and identified in the applicable prospectus supplement with respect to that series. To the extent the debt securities of a series are issued in global form and as book-entry, a description of terms relating to any book-entry securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

 

Subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration

 

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of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will impose no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

 

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities.  We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

 

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

·                  issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

 

·                  register the transfer of or exchange of any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

 

Information Concerning the Trustee

 

The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture.  Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs.  Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indenture at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

 

Payment and Paying Agents

 

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

 

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

 

All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

 

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Governing Law

 

The indenture and the debt securities, and any claim, controversy or dispute arising under or related to the indenture or the debt securities, will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

 

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplements and free writing prospectuses, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, which may consist of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and may be issued in one or more series.  Warrants may be issued independently or together with common stock, preferred stock or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement, and may be attached to or separate from those securities. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus. The terms of any warrants offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. However, no prospectus supplement will fundamentally change the terms that are set forth in this prospectus or offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness.

 

We have filed forms of the warrant agreements as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant agreement, if any, including a form of warrant certificate, that describes the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering. The following summaries of material provisions of the warrants and the warrant agreements are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the warrant agreement and warrant certificate applicable to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements related to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectuses, and the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants.

 

General

 

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms relating to a series of warrants being offered, including:

 

·                  the title of such securities;

 

·                  the offering price or prices and aggregate number of warrants offered;

 

·                  the currency or currencies for which the warrants may be purchased;

 

·                  if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;

 

·                  if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

 

·                  if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of such warrants which my be exercised at any one time;

 

·                  in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at which, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

·                  in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which, and the currency in which, these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

·                  the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreements and the warrants;

 

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·                  the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

·                  the terms of any rights to force the exercise of the warrants;

 

·                  any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

·                  the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

 

·                  the manner in which the warrant agreements and warrants may be modified;

 

·                  a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax consequences of holding or exercising the warrants;

 

·                  the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and

 

·                  any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.

 

Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise, including:

 

·                  in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the right to receive payments of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities purchasable upon exercise or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture; or

 

·                  in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the right to receive dividends, if any, or, payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise voting rights, if any.

 

Exercise of Warrants

 

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

 

Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants by delivering the warrant certificate representing the warrants to be exercised together with specified information, and paying the required amount to the warrant agent in immediately available funds, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will set forth on the reverse side of the warrant certificate and in the applicable prospectus supplement the information that the holder of the warrant will be required to deliver to the warrant agent in connection with the exercise of the warrant.

 

Upon receipt of the required payment and the warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If fewer than all of the warrants represented by the warrant certificate are exercised, then we will issue a new warrant certificate for the remaining amount of warrants. If we so indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may surrender securities as all or part of the exercise price for warrants.

 

Governing Law

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the warrants and warrant agreements, and any claim, controversy or dispute arising under or related to the warrants or warrant agreements, will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

 

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants

 

Each warrant agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant.  A single bank or trust company may act

 

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as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants.  A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us.  Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants.

 

LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

 

We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities.  We describe global securities in greater detail below.  We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee or depositary maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities.  These persons are the legal holders of the securities.  We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities.  As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.

 

Book-Entry Holders

 

We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement.  This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system.  These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.

 

Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security.  Global securities will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants.  Consequently, for global securities, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary.  The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners.  The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.

 

As a result, investors in a global security will not own securities directly.  Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant.  As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not legal holders, of the securities.

 

Street Name Holders

 

A global security may be terminated in certain situations as described under “—Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated,” or issue securities that are not issued in global form.  In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.

 

For securities held in street name, we or any applicable trustee or depositary will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we or any such trustee or depositary will make all payments on those securities to them.  These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so.  Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.

 

Legal Holders

 

Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee or third party employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities.  We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests

 

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in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means.  This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.

 

For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the legal holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that legal holder is required, under agreements with its participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so.  Similarly, we may want to obtain the approval of the holders to amend an indenture, to relieve us of the consequences of a default or of our obligation to comply with a particular provision of an indenture, or for other purposes.  In such an event, we would seek approval only from the legal holders, and not the indirect holders, of the securities.  Whether and how the legal holders contact the indirect holders is up to the legal holders.

 

Special Considerations for Indirect Holders

 

If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form because the securities are represented by one or more global securities or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

 

·                  how it handles securities payments and notices;

 

·                  whether it imposes fees or charges;

 

·                  how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;

 

·                  whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;

 

·                  how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and

 

·                  if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.

 

Global Securities

 

A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary.  Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.

 

Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we issue to, deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select.  The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary.  Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, DTC will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.

 

A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise.  We describe those situations below under “—Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated.” As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and legal holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security.  Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does.  Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a legal holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.

 

If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued as a global security, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated.  If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.

 

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Special Considerations for Global Securities

 

As an indirect holder, an investor’s rights relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers.  We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.

 

If securities are issued only as global securities, an investor should be aware of the following:

 

·                  an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;

 

·                  an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above;

 

·                  an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;

 

·                  an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in the global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;

 

·                  the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in the global security;

 

·                  we and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in the global security, nor will we or any applicable trustee supervise the depositary in any way;

 

·                  the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in the global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do so as well; and

 

·                  financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in the global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities.

 

There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor.  We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.

 

Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated

 

In a few special situations described below, a global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests.  After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor.  Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own names, so that they will be direct holders.  We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.

 

A global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:

 

·                  if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;

 

·                  if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or

 

·                  if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.

 

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The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the prospectus supplement.  When a global security terminates, the depositary, and neither we nor any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods. We may sell the securities to or through underwriters or dealers, through agents, or directly to one or more purchasers. We may distribute securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

·                  at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

·                  at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

·                  at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

·                  at negotiated prices.

 

We may also sell equity securities covered by this registration statement in an “at-the-market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act.  Such offering may be made into an existing trading market for such securities in transactions at other than a fixed price, either:

 

·                  on or through the facilities of the Nasdaq Global Select Market or any other securities exchange or quotation or trading service on which such securities may be listed, quoted or traded at the time of sale; and/or

 

·                  to or through a market maker other than on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or such other securities exchanges or quotation or trading services.

 

Such “at-the-market” offerings, if any, may be conducted by underwriters acting as principal or agent.

 

A prospectus supplement or supplements (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

·                  the name or names of any underwriters, dealers or agents, if any;

 

·                  the purchase price of the securities and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;

 

·                  any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

·                  any agency fees or underwriting discounts and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;

 

·                  any public offering price;

 

·                  any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

 

·                  any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.

 

Only underwriters named in the prospectus supplement are underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement.

 

If underwriters are used in the sale, they will acquire the securities for their own account and may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale.  The obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable underwriting agreement.  We may offer the securities to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or by underwriters without a syndicate.  Subject to certain conditions, the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities offered by the prospectus

 

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supplement.  Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may change from time to time.  We may use underwriters with whom we have a material relationship.  We will describe in the prospectus supplement, naming the underwriter, the nature of any such relationship.

 

We may sell securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time.  We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities, and we will describe any commissions we will pay the agent in the prospectus supplement.  Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, our agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

 

We may authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by certain types of institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future.  We will describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.

 

We may provide agents and underwriters with indemnification against civil liabilities related to this offering, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents or underwriters may make with respect to these liabilities.  Agents and underwriters may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.

 

All securities we offer, other than common stock, will be new issues of securities with no established trading market.  Any underwriters may make a market in these securities, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice.  We cannot guarantee the liquidity of the trading markets for any securities.

 

Any underwriter may engage in overallotment, stabilizing transactions, short covering transactions and penalty bids.  Overallotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position.  Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum.  Short covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution is completed to cover short positions.  Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a stabilizing or covering transaction to cover short positions.  Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be.  If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time.  These transactions may be effected on any exchange or over-the-counter market or otherwise.

 

Any underwriters who are qualified market makers on the Nasdaq Global Select Market may engage in passive market making transactions in the securities on the Nasdaq Global Select Market in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the securities.  Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers.  In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded. Passive market making may stabilize the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, certain legal matters in connection with the offering and the validity of the securities offered by this prospectus, and any supplement thereto, will be passed upon by Cooley LLP.

 

EXPERTS

 

The financial statements of Trevena, Inc. appearing in Trevena’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2017 have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their report thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such financial statements are, and audited financial statements to be included in subsequently filed documents will be, incorporated herein in reliance upon the report of Ernst & Young LLP pertaining to such financial statements to the extent covered by consents filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement.  For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement.  Neither we nor any agent, underwriter or dealer has authorized any person to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the securities offered by this prospectus.

 

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy the registration statement, as well as any other document filed by us with the SEC, at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. You can also request copies of these documents by writing to the SEC and paying a fee for the copying cost.  You may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at (800) SEC-0330. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including Trevena. The address of the SEC website is www.sec.gov.

 

We maintain a website at www.trevena.com. Information contained in or accessible through our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus.

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The SEC file number for the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus is 001-36193. The documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus contain important information that you should read about us.

 

The following documents are incorporated by reference into this document:

 

·                  our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017 filed with the SEC on March 7, 2018;

 

·                  the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017 from our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A  (other than information furnished rather than filed) filed with the SEC on April 2, 2018;

 

·                  our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on May 3, 2018;

 

·                  our Current Reports on Form 8-K (other than information furnished rather than filed) filed with the SEC on January 5, 2018, February 2, 2018, March 2, 2018, April 6, 2018, April 12, 2018, May 21, 2018, June 13, 2018, and June 15, 2018; and

 

·                  the description of our common stock, which is registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act, in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on November 12, 2013, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

 

We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus all documents (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (i) after the date of the initial filing

 

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of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement, or (ii) after the date of this prospectus but prior to the termination of the offering. These documents include periodic reports, such as Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as proxy statements.

 

We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus is delivered, without charge upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus, including exhibits which are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. You should direct any requests for documents by writing us at 955 Chesterbrook Blvd., Suite 200, Chesterbrook, PA 19087, Attn: Corporate Secretary or telephoning us at (610) 354-8840.

 

Any statement contained herein or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this document will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of the document to the extent that a statement contained in this document or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this document modifies or supersedes the statement.

 

DISCLOSURE OF COMMISSION’S POSITION ON INDEMNIFICATION FOR

SECURITIES ACT LIABILITY

 

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers or persons controlling the Company pursuant to the foregoing provisions, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable.

 

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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed.  We may not sell these securities or accept an offer to buy these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective.  This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities, and it is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state where such offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED JUNE 15, 2018

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

$50,000,000

 

Common Stock

 

We have entered into a certain Sales Agreement, or sales agreement, with Cowen and Company, LLC, or Cowen, relating to shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50.0 million from time to time through Cowen.

 

Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, or the Exchange, under the symbol “TRVN.” On June 14, 2018, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $1.74 per share.

 

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus may be made in sales deemed to be “at-the-market” equity offerings as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through the Exchange, the existing trading market for our common stock, sales made to or through a market maker other than on an exchange or otherwise, in negotiated transactions at market prices prevailing at the time of sale or at prices related to such prevailing market prices, and/or any other method permitted by law. Cowen is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of securities, but will act as a sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between Cowen and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

The compensation to Cowen for sales of common stock sold pursuant to the sales agreement will be an amount up to 3% of the gross proceeds of any shares of common stock sold under the sales agreement. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, Cowen will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.

 


 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” on page 4 of this prospectus and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 


 

NEITHER THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION NOR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THESE SECURITIES OR DETERMINED IF THIS PROSPECTUS IS TRUTHFUL OR COMPLETE.  ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.

 

Cowen and Company

 

The date of this prospectus is                                   , 2018.

 



Table of Contents

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Prospectus

 

 

Page

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

i

SUMMARY

1

THE OFFERING

3

RISK FACTORS

4

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

5

USE OF PROCEEDS

6

DILUTION

7

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

9

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

13

LEGAL MATTERS

13

EXPERTS

13

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

14

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

14

DISCLOSURE OF COMMISSION’S POSITION ON INDEMNIFICATION FOR SECURITIES ACT LIABILITY

15

 


 


Table of Contents

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus relates to the offering of our common stock. Before buying any of the common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus, together with the information incorporated by reference as described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” in this prospectus. These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

 

This prospectus describes the terms of this offering of common stock and also adds to and updates information contained in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference into this prospectus that was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, before the date of this prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date — for example, a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus — the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

 

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. We have not, and the sales agent has not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are not, and the sales agent is not, making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision.

 

Unless otherwise mentioned or unless the context requires otherwise, all references in this prospectus to “Trevena,” “company,” “we,” “us” and “our” or similar references refer to Trevena, Inc.

 

This prospectus and the information incorporated herein and therein by reference include trademarks, service marks and trade names owned by us or other companies. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus are the property of their respective owners.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights certain information about us, this offering and selected information contained elsewhere in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in our common stock. For a more complete understanding of our company and this offering, we encourage you to read and consider carefully the more detailed information in this prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and the information included in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, including the information under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus on page 4 and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

We are a biopharmaceutical company developing innovative therapies based on breakthrough science to benefit patients and healthcare providers confronting serious medical conditions.

 

Using our proprietary product platform, we have identified and are developing the following product candidates:

 

·      Oliceridine injection:  We are developing oliceridine, a G protein biased ligand of the μ opioid receptor, for the management of moderate-to-severe acute pain where intravenous, or IV, administration is preferred.  In February 2017, we announced positive top-line results from our Phase 3 APOLLO-1 and APOLLO-2 pivotal efficacy studies of oliceridine in moderate-to-severe acute pain following bunionectomy and abdominoplasty, respectively. In both studies, all dose regimens achieved their primary endpoint of statistically greater analgesic efficacy than placebo, as measured by responder rate.  In July 2017, we announced that we had completed enrollment in the Phase 3 open-label ATHENA safety study to support the new drug application, or NDA, for oliceridine.  In the study, 768 patients were administered oliceridine to manage pain associated with a wide range of procedures and diagnoses. In January 2018, we announced that the United States Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, had accepted the NDA we submitted for oliceridine.  The FDA also indicated that the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, or PDUFA, review date for the oliceridine NDA is November 2, 2018 and that it plans to hold an advisory committee meeting to discuss the NDA. If oliceridine ultimately receives regulatory approval, we plan to commercialize it in the United States, either on our own or with a commercial partner, for use in acute care settings such as hospitals and ambulatory surgery centers; outside the United States, we plan to commercialize oliceridine in certain countries with a commercial partner and we recently announced license agreements with partners in South Korea and China.

 

·      TRV250:  We are developing TRV250, a G protein biased ligand targeting the δ-receptor, as a compound with a potential first-in-class, non-narcotic mechanism for the treatment of migraine. TRV250 also may have utility in a range of other central nervous system, or CNS, indications. Because TRV250 selectively targets the δ-receptor, we believe it will not have the addiction liability of conventional opioids or other μ-opioid related adverse effects like those seen with morphine or oxycodone. In the second quarter of 2017, we began a Phase I study of TRV250 in the United Kingdom in healthy volunteers; in the first quarter of 2018, we completed dosing in this study and are awaiting final top-line results.

 

We also have identified and have completed the initial Phase 1 studies for TRV734, an orally administered new chemical entity expected to be developed for first-line treatment of moderate-to-severe acute and chronic pain. We intend to continue to focus our efforts for TRV734 on securing a development and commercialization partner for this asset. We also are evaluating a set of novel S1P modulators that may offer a new, non-narcotic approach to managing chronic pain. We expect to complete characterization of the lead compounds in 2018 to determine if any merit IND-enabling studies to support Phase 1 clinical trials.

 

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We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in November 2007. Our principal executive office is located at 955 Chesterbrook Blvd., Suite 200, Chesterbrook, PA 19087. Our telephone number is (610) 354-8840. Our website address is www.trevena.com. The information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider any information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website as part of this prospectus or in deciding whether to purchase our common stock.

 

“Trevena”, the Trevena logo and other trademarks or service marks of Trevena, Inc. appearing in this prospectus are the property of Trevena, Inc. This prospectus contains additional trade names, trademarks and service marks of others, which are the property of their respective owners.

 

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THE OFFERING

 

 

 

Common Stock Offered By Us

 

Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50.0 million.

 

 

 

Manner of Offering

 

“At-the-market” offering that may be made from time to time through our sales agent, Cowen. See “Plan of Distribution” on page 13.

 

 

 

Use of Proceeds

 

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering primarily for development, manufacturing, and commercialization of product candidates, and for other general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds” on page 6 of this prospectus.

 

 

 

Risk Factors

 

Investing in our common stock involves significant risks. See “Risk Factors” on page 4 of this prospectus, and under similar headings in other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

 

 

Nasdaq Global Select Market Symbol

 

TRVN

 

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RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully review the risks and uncertainties described below and under the section titled “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, as updated by our annual, quarterly and other reports and documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, before deciding whether to purchase any of the securities being registered pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities, and the occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also significantly impair our business operations. Please also read carefully the section below titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

 

Additional Risks Related to This Offering

 

You may experience dilution.

 

The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 28,735,632 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $1.74 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Exchange on June 14, 2018, for aggregate gross proceeds of $50.0 million, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, you would experience immediate dilution of $0.86 per share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2018 after giving effect to this offering and the assumed offering price. The exercise of outstanding stock options and warrants would result in further dilution of your investment. See the section entitled “Dilution” below for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you would incur if you participate in this offering. Because the sales of the shares offered hereby will be made directly into the market or in negotiated transactions, the prices at which we sell these shares will vary and these variations may be significant. Purchasers of the shares we sell, as well as our existing shareholders, will experience significant dilution if we sell shares at prices significantly below the price at which they invested.

 

You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

 

To raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by investors in this offering.

 

Our management might apply the net proceeds from this offering in ways with which you do not agree and in ways that may impair the value of your investment.

 

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering primarily for research, development, manufacturing, and commercialization of product candidates, and for other general corporate purposes. Pending these uses, we expect to invest the net proceeds in short-term, interest-bearing securities. Our management has broad discretion as to the use of these proceeds and you will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding the application of these proceeds. We might apply these proceeds in ways with which you do not agree, or in ways that do not yield a favorable return. If our management applies these proceeds in a manner that does not yield a significant return, if any, on our investment of these net proceeds, it could compromise our ability to pursue our growth strategy and adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus, the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering contain or may contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, that involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Although our forward-looking statements reflect the good faith judgment of our management, these statements can only be based on facts and factors currently known by us. Consequently, these forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, and actual results and outcomes may differ materially from results and outcomes discussed in the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements may include, but are not limited to, statements about: our plans to develop and potentially commercialize our product candidates;  our planned clinical trials and preclinical studies for our product candidates; the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for our product candidates; the extent of clinical trials potentially required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for our product candidates; the clinical utility and market acceptance of our product candidates; our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy; our intellectual property position; and our ability to identify additional product candidates with significant commercial potential that are consistent with our commercial objectives.

 

Forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking words such as “believes,” “expects,” “hopes,” “may,” “will,” “plan,” “intends,” “estimates,” “could,” “should,” “would,” “continue,” “seeks,” “pro forma,” or “anticipates,” or other similar words (including their use in the negative), or by discussions of future matters such as the development of new products, technology enhancements, possible collaborations and other statements that are not historical. These statements include but are not limited to statements under the captions “Business,” “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and in other sections incorporated by reference from our Annual Report on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, as applicable, as well as our other filings with the SEC. You should be aware that the occurrence of any of the events discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus and any documents incorporated by reference herein could substantially harm our business, operating results and financial condition and that if any of these events occurs, it could adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities.

 

The cautionary statements made in this prospectus are intended to be applicable to all related forward-looking statements wherever they may appear in this prospectus or any documents incorporated by reference herein. We urge you not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date they are made. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update our forward-looking statements, even if new information becomes available in the future.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $50.0 million from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. We estimate that the net proceeds from the sale of the shares of common stock that we are offering may be up to $48.5 million, after deducting Cowen’s commission and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering primarily for research, development, manufacturing, and commercialization of product candidates, and for other general corporate purposes. Pending these uses, we expect to invest the net proceeds in short-term, interest-bearing securities.

 

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DILUTION

 

Our net tangible book value as of March 31, 2018 was $36.3 million, or $0.54 per share. Net tangible book value per share is determined by dividing our total tangible assets, less total liabilities, by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2018. Dilution with respect to net tangible book value per share represents the difference between the amount per share paid by purchasers of shares of common stock in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.

 

After giving effect to the sale of 28,735,632 shares of our common stock in this offering at an assumed offering price of $1.74 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Exchange on June 14, 2018, and after deducting estimated offering commissions and offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of March 31, 2018 would have been $84.5 million, or $0.88 per share. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $0.34 per share to existing stockholders and immediate dilution of $0.86 per share to investors purchasing our common stock in this offering at the assumed public offering price. The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis:

 

Assumed public offering price per share

 

 

 

$

1.74

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2018

 

$

0.54

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to this offering

 

 

0.34

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As adjusted net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2018, after giving effect to this offering

 

 

 

 

0.88

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dilution per share to investors purchasing our common stock in this offering

 

 

 

$

0.86

 

 

The above discussion and table are based on 67,603,736 shares outstanding as of March 31, 2018, and exclude:

 

·             123,091 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of March 31, 2018, having a weighted average exercise price of $6.13 per share;

 

·             10,397,243 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of March 31, 2018, having a weighted average exercise price of $4.40 per share; and

 

·             an aggregate of 1,915,976 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our stock option and employee stock purchase plans as of March 31, 2018.

 

The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 28,735,632 shares of our common stock are sold during the term of the sales agreement with Cowen at a price of $1.74 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Exchange on June 14, 2018, for aggregate gross proceeds of $50 million. The shares subject to the sales agreement with Cowen are being sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $1.74 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $50 million during the term of the sales agreement with Cowen is sold at that price, would increase our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $0.98 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $1.76 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $1.74 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of

 

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$50.0 million during the term of the sales agreement with Cowen is sold at that price, would decrease our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $0.63 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $0.11 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. This information is supplied for illustrative purposes only.

 

To the extent that outstanding options or warrants outstanding as of March 31, 2018 have been or may be exercised or other shares issued, investors purchasing our common stock in this offering may experience further dilution. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

As of the date of this prospectus, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue 200,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share. As of June 14, 2018, 72,582,321 shares of common stock were outstanding and no shares of preferred stock were outstanding.

 

The following summary describes the material terms of our capital stock. The description of capital stock is qualified by reference to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws, which are incorporated by reference as exhibits into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

Common Stock

 

Voting. Our common stock is entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders, including the election of directors, and does not have cumulative voting rights. Accordingly, the holders of a majority of the shares of our common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election.

 

Dividends. Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then-outstanding preferred stock, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our Board of Directors out of legally available funds.

 

Liquidation. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities, subject to the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any outstanding shares of preferred stock.

 

Rights and Preferences. Holders of our common stock have no preemptive, conversion or subscription rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

 

Fully Paid and Nonassessable.  All of our outstanding shares of common stock are fully paid and nonassessable.

 

Preferred Stock

 

Under our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by stockholders, to designate up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix or alter, from time to time, the designations, powers and rights of each series of preferred stock and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of any series of preferred stock, including dividend rights, dividend rate, conversion rights, voting rights, rights and terms of redemption (including sinking fund provisions), redemption price or prices, and the liquidation preference of any wholly unissued series of preferred stock, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of the common stock, and to establish the number of shares constituting any such series.  To date, none of the 5,000,000 authorized shares of preferred stock have been designated by our board of directors.

 

The laws of the state of Delaware, the state of our incorporation, provide that the holders of preferred stock will have the right to vote separately as a class on any proposal involving fundamental changes in the rights of holders of such preferred stock. This right is in addition to any voting rights that may be provided for in the applicable certificate of designation.

 

The issuance of preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power, conversion or other rights of holders of common stock and reduce the likelihood that common stockholders will receive dividend payments and payments upon liquidation. Preferred stock could be issued quickly with terms designed to delay, deter or prevent a change in

 

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control of our company or make removal of management more difficult.  Additionally, the issuance of preferred stock may have the effect of decreasing the market price of our common stock.

 

Warrants

 

We have outstanding an immediately exercisable warrant to purchase 20,161 shares of our common stock at an exercise price of $6.20 per share, which expires in December 2021. We refer to this warrant as the Comerica warrant. The Comerica warrant also contains provisions for the adjustment of the exercise price and the number of shares issuable upon the exercise of the warrant in the event of certain stock dividends, stock splits, reorganizations, reclassifications and consolidations.

 

In connection with entering into a credit facility in September 2014, we issued to the lenders and the placement agent warrants to purchase an aggregate of 7,678 shares of our common stock, of which warrants to purchase 5,728 shares remain outstanding as of the date of this filing. These warrants are exercisable immediately and have an exercise price of $5.8610 per share.  These warrants may be exercised on a cashless basis and will terminate on the earlier of September 19, 2024 or the closing of a merger or consolidation transaction in which we are not the surviving entity. In connection with subsequent draws of additional funds under this credit facility, we issued to the lenders and the placement agent additional warrants to purchase an aggregate of 34,961 and 62,241 shares of our common stock in December 2015 and March 2017, respectively. The December 2015 warrants have substantially the same terms as those noted above, and have an exercise price of $10.6190 per share and an expiration date of December 23, 2025. The March 2017 warrants have substantially the same terms as those noted above, and have an exercise price of $3.6150 per share and an expiration date of March 31, 2027.

 

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Anti-Takeover Provisions

 

Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years after the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, with the following exceptions:

 

·                  before such date, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

·                  upon completion of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction began, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding, but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder, those shares owned (i) by persons who are directors and also officers and (ii) employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

 

·                  on or after such date, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.

 

In general, Section 203 defines a “business combination” to include the following:

 

·                  any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

 

·                  any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;

 

·                  subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;

 

·                  any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock or any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or

 

·                  the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits by or through the corporation.

 

In general, Section 203 defines an “interested stockholder” as an entity or person who, together with the person’s affiliates and associates, beneficially owns, or within three years prior to the time of determination of interested stockholder status did own, 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation.

 

Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, or our restated certificate, provides for our board of directors to be divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms. Only one class of directors will be elected at each annual meeting of our stockholders, with the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective three-year terms. Because our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights, stockholders holding a majority of the shares of common stock outstanding will be able to elect all of our directors. Our restated certificate and our amended and restated bylaws, or our restated bylaws, also provide that directors may be removed by the stockholders only for cause upon the vote of 66 2/3% or more of our outstanding common stock. Furthermore, the authorized number of directors may be changed only by resolution of the board of directors, and vacancies and newly created directorships on the board of directors may, except as otherwise required by law or determined by the board, only be filled by a majority vote of the directors then serving on the board, even though less than a quorum.

 

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Our restated certificate and restated bylaws also provide that all stockholder actions must be effected at a duly called meeting of stockholders and will eliminate the right of stockholders to act by written consent without a meeting. Our restated bylaws also provide that only our chairman of the board, chief executive officer or the board of directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of authorized directors may call a special meeting of stockholders.

 

Our restated bylaws also provide that stockholders seeking to present proposals before a meeting of stockholders to nominate candidates for election as directors at a meeting of stockholders must provide timely advance notice in writing, and will specify requirements as to the form and content of a stockholder’s notice.

 

Our restated certificate and restated bylaws provide that the stockholders cannot amend many of the provisions described above except by a vote of 66 2/3% or more of our outstanding common stock.

 

The combination of these provisions makes it more difficult for our existing stockholders to replace our board of directors as well as for another party to obtain control of us by replacing our board of directors. Since our board of directors has the power to retain and discharge our officers, these provisions could also make it more difficult for existing stockholders or another party to effect a change in management. In addition, the authorization of undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to effect a change of control of our company.

 

These provisions are intended to enhance the likelihood of continued stability in the composition of our board of directors and its policies and to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to reduce our vulnerability to hostile takeovers and to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. However, such provisions could have the effect of discouraging others from making tender offers for our shares and may have the effect of delaying changes in our control or management. As a consequence, these provisions may also inhibit fluctuations in the market price of our stock that could result from actual or rumored takeover attempts. We believe that the benefits of these provisions, including increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure our company, outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging takeover proposals, because negotiation of takeover proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company. The transfer agent’s address is 17 Battery Place, 8th Floor, New York, NY 10004.

 

Listing on the Nasdaq Global Select Market

 

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “TRVN.”

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We have entered into a Sales Agreement with Cowen under which we may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $50 million from time to time through Cowen acting as agent. Cowen may sell the common stock by any method that is deemed to be an “at-the-market” equity offering as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act including sales made directly on or through the Exchange or any other existing trading market for the common stock in the United States or to or through a market maker. Cowen also may sell the common stock in negotiated transactions, subject to our prior approval.

 

Each time we wish to issue and sell common stock under the sales agreement, we will notify Cowen of the number of shares to be issued, the dates on which such sales are anticipated to be made and any minimum price below which sales may not be made. Once we have so instructed Cowen, unless Cowen declines to accept the terms of this notice, Cowen has agreed to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such shares up to the amount specified on such terms. The obligations of Cowen under the sales agreement to sell our common stock are subject to a number of conditions that we must meet.

 

The settlement between us and Cowen is generally anticipated to occur on the second trading day following the date on which the sale was made. Sales of our common stock as contemplated in this prospectus will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and Cowen may agree upon. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

We will pay Cowen a commission equal to an aggregate of up to 3% of the gross proceeds we receive from the sales of our common stock. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, Cowen may, and will with respect to sales effected in an “at-the-market-offering,” be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation of Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen with respect to certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.  In addition, we have agreed to reimburse Cowen for fees and disbursements related to its legal counsel in an amount not to exceed $30,000, and for certain other expenses. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding compensation payable to Cowen under the terms of the sales agreement, will be approximately $280,000.

 

The offering of our common stock pursuant to the sales agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (i) the issuance and sale of all of our common stock provided for in this prospectus, or (ii) termination of the sales agreement as permitted therein.

 

This summary of the material provisions of the sales agreement does not purport to be a complete statement of its terms and conditions. A copy of the sales agreement is filed with the SEC and is incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information” below.

 

Cowen and its affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, various investment banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they may in the future receive customary fees.

 

To the extent required by Regulation M, Cowen will not engage in any market making activities involving our common stock while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus.

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

The validity of the common stock offered by this prospectus will be passed upon by Cooley LLP, Washington, District of Columbia. Morgan, Lewis & Bockius, LLP, is counsel for Cowen in connection with this offering.

 

EXPERTS

 

The financial statements of Trevena, Inc. appearing in Trevena’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2017 have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their report thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such financial statements are, and audited financial statements to be included in subsequently filed documents will be, incorporated herein in reliance upon the report of Ernst & Young LLP pertaining to such financial statements to the extent covered by consents filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement.  For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement.  Neither we nor any agent, underwriter or dealer has authorized any person to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the securities offered by this prospectus.

 

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy the registration statement, as well as any other document filed by us with the SEC, at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. You can also request copies of these documents by writing to the SEC and paying a fee for the copying cost.  You may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at (800) SEC-0330. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including Trevena. The address of the SEC website is www.sec.gov.

 

We maintain a website at www.trevena.com. Information contained in or accessible through our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus.

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The SEC file number for the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus is 001-36193. The documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus contain important information that you should read about us.

 

The following documents are incorporated by reference into this document:

 

·                  our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017 filed with the SEC on March 7, 2018;

 

·                  the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017 from our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A  (other than information furnished rather than filed) filed with the SEC on April 2, 2018;

 

·                  our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on May 3, 2018;

 

·                  our Current Reports on Form 8-K (other than information furnished rather than filed) filed with the SEC on January 5, 2018, February 2, 2018, March 2, 2018, April 6, 2018, April 12, 2018, May 21, 2018, June 13, 2018, and June 15, 2018; and

 

·                  the description of our common stock, which is registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act, in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on November 12, 2013, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

 

We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus all documents (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (i) after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement, or (ii) after the date of this prospectus but prior to the termination of the offering. These documents

 

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include periodic reports, such as Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as proxy statements.

 

We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus is delivered, without charge upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus, including exhibits which are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. You should direct any requests for documents by writing us at 955 Chesterbrook Blvd., Suite 200, Chesterbrook, PA 19087, Attn: Corporate Secretary or telephoning us at (610) 354-8840.

 

Any statement contained herein or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this document will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of the document to the extent that a statement contained in this document or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this document modifies or supersedes the statement.

 

DISCLOSURE OF COMMISSION’S POSITION ON INDEMNIFICATION FOR

SECURITIES ACT LIABILITY

 

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers or persons controlling the Company pursuant to the foregoing provisions, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable.

 

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$50,000,000

 

 

Common Stock

 

Prospectus

 

Cowen and Company

 

 

            , 2018

 



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PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN THE PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

 

The following table sets forth the estimated costs and expenses, other than underwriting discounts and commissions, payable by us in connection with the offering of the securities being registered.  All the amounts shown are estimates, except for the SEC registration fee.

 

SEC registration fee

 

$

 

Accounting fees and expenses

 

100,000

 

Legal fees and expenses

 

150,000

 

Transfer agent fees and expenses

 

5,000

 

Trustee fees and expenses

 

15,000

 

Printing and miscellaneous expenses

 

10,000

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

$

280,000

 

 

Item 15. Indemnification of Officers and Directors

 

Under Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or DGCL, we have broad powers to indemnify our directors and officers against liabilities they may incur in such capacities, including liabilities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Section 145 of the DGCL generally provides that a Delaware corporation has the power to indemnify its present and former directors, officers, employees and agents against expenses incurred by them in connection with any suit to which they are or are threatened to be made, a party by reason of their serving in such positions so long as they acted in good faith and in a manner they reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to, the best interests of the corporation and, with respect to any criminal action, they had no reasonable cause to believe their conduct was unlawful.

 

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws include provisions that (i) eliminate the personal liability of our directors for monetary damages resulting from breaches of their fiduciary duty to the fullest extent permitted under applicable law, (ii) require us to indemnify our directors and executive officers to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL or other applicable law and (iii) provide us with the power, in our discretion, to indemnify our other officers, employees and other agents as set forth in the DGCL or other applicable law. We believe that these provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws are necessary to attract and retain qualified persons as directors and officers. These provisions do not eliminate our directors’ or officers’ duty of care, and, in appropriate circumstances, equitable remedies such as injunctive or other forms of non-monetary relief will remain available under the DGCL. In addition, each director will continue to be subject to liability pursuant to Section 174 of the DGCL, for breach of such director’s duty of loyalty to us, for acts or omissions not in good faith or involving intentional misconduct, for knowing violations of law, for acts or omissions that such director believes to be contrary to our best interests or the best interests of our stockholders, for any transaction from which such director derived an improper personal benefit, for acts or omissions involving a reckless disregard for such director’s duty to us or to our stockholders when such director was aware or should have been aware of a risk of serious injury to us or to our stockholders, for acts or omission that constitute an unexcused pattern of inattention that amounts to an abdication of such director’s duty to us or to our stockholders, for improper transactions between such director and us and for improper loans to directors and officers. These provisions also do not affect a director’s responsibilities under any other law, such as the federal securities law or state or federal environmental laws.

 

As permitted by Delaware law, we have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our current directors and officers pursuant to the foregoing provisions. We have an insurance policy covering our officers and directors with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities arising under the Securities Act or otherwise.

 

The underwriting agreement, if any, entered into with respect to an offering of securities registered hereunder will provide for indemnification by any underwriters of any offering, our directors and officers who sign the

 

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registration statement and our controlling persons for some liabilities, including liabilities arising under the Securities Act.

 

Item 16. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

Exhibit
Number

 

Description of Document

 

 

 

1.1

*

 

Form of Underwriting Agreement.

 

 

 

 

1.2

 

 

Sales Agreement dated as of June 15, 2018, between the Registrant and Cowen and Company, LLC (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on June 15, 2018).

 

 

 

 

3.1

 

 

Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on February 5, 2014).

 

 

 

 

3.2

 

 

Certificate of Amendment of Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Trevena, Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on May 21, 2018).

 

 

 

 

3.3

 

 

Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on February 5, 2014).

 

 

 

 

4.1

 

 

Reference is made to Exhibits 3.1, 3.2, and 3.3

 

 

 

 

4.2

 

 

Specimen stock certificate evidencing shares of Common Stock of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1, as amended (File No. 333- 191643), filed with the SEC on November 12, 2013).

 

 

 

 

4.3

 

 

Form of Indenture, between the Registrant and one or more trustees to be named.

 

 

 

 

4.4

*

 

Form of Note.

 

 

 

 

4.5

 

 

Form of Common Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.

 

 

 

 

4.6

 

 

Form of Preferred Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.

 

 

 

 

4.7

 

 

Form of Debt Securities Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.

 

 

 

 

4.8

*

 

Form of Specimen Preferred Stock Certificate and Certificate of Designations of Preferred Stock.

 

 

 

 

5.1

 

 

Opinion of Cooley LLP.

 

 

 

 

12.1

 

 

Statement Regarding Computation of Ratios.

 

 

 

 

23.1

 

 

Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.

 

 

 

 

23.2

 

 

Consent of Cooley LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1).

 

 

 

 

24.1

 

 

Power of Attorney (included on signature page).

 

 

 

 

25.1

*

 

Statement of Eligibility of Trustee under the Indenture.

 


*                 To be filed by amendment or by a report filed under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and incorporated herein by reference, if applicable.

 

Item 17. Undertakings

 

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(1)   To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

(i)             To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;

 

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(ii)          To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

(iii)       To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

 

provided, however, that the undertakings set forth in paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement or are contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of this registration statement.

 

(2)   That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(3)   To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

(4)   That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

 

(i) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

(ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

(5)   That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser: (i) any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424; (ii) any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned

 

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registrant; (iii) the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and (iv) any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

(6)   That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(7)   That for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, (i) the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of the registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in the form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(l) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be a part of the registration statement as of the time it was declared effective; and (ii) each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offing of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(8)   To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

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INDEX TO EXHIBITS

 

Exhibit
Number

 

Description of Document

 

 

 

 

1.1

*

 

Form of Underwriting Agreement.

 

 

 

 

1.2

 

 

Sales Agreement dated as of June 15, 2018, between the Registrant and Cowen and Company, LLC (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on June 15, 2018).

 

 

 

 

3.1

 

 

Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on February 5, 2014).

 

 

 

 

3.2

 

 

Certificate of Amendment of Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Trevena,Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on May 21, 2018).

 

 

 

 

3.3

 

 

Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on February 5, 2014).

 

 

 

 

4.1

 

 

Reference is made to Exhibits 3.1, 3.2, and 3.3

 

 

 

 

4.2

 

 

Specimen stock certificate evidencing shares of Common Stock of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1, as amended (File No. 333- 191643), filed with the SEC on November 12, 2013).

 

 

 

 

4.3

 

 

Form of Indenture, between the Registrant and one or more trustees to be named.

 

 

 

 

4.4

*

 

Form of Note.

 

 

 

 

4.5

 

 

Form of Common Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.

 

 

 

 

4.6

 

 

Form of Preferred Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.

 

 

 

 

4.7

 

 

Form of Debt Securities Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.

 

 

 

 

4.8

*

 

Form of Specimen Preferred Stock Certificate and Certificate of Designations of Preferred Stock.

 

 

 

 

5.1

 

 

Opinion of Cooley LLP.

 

 

 

 

12.1

 

 

Statement Regarding Computation of Ratios.

 

 

 

 

23.1

 

 

Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.

 

 

 

 

23.2

 

 

Consent of Cooley LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1).

 

 

 

 

24.1

 

 

Power of Attorney (included on signature page).

 

 

 

 

25.1

*

 

Statement of Eligibility of Trustee under the Indenture.

 


*                 To be filed by amendment or by a report filed under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and incorporated herein by reference, if applicable.

 

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SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, the Registrant has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Chesterbrook, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, on the 15th day of June 2018.

 

 

 

TREVENA, INC.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

By:

/s/ John M. Limongelli

 

 

 

John M. Limongelli

 

 

 

Sr. Vice President, General Counsel & Chief Administrative Officer

 

POWER OF ATTORNEY

 

KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below hereby constitutes and appoints Maxine Gowen, Ph.D., and John M. Limongelli, and each of them, his or her true and lawful agent, proxy and attorney-in-fact, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him or her and in his or her name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to (i) act on, sign and file with the Securities and Exchange Commission any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this registration statement together with all schedules and exhibits thereto and any subsequent registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, together with all schedules and exhibits thereto, (ii) act on, sign and file such certificates, instruments, agreements and other documents as may be necessary or appropriate in connection therewith, (iii) act on and file any supplement to any prospectus included in this registration statement or any such amendment or any subsequent registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and (iv) take any and all actions which may be necessary or appropriate to be done, as fully for all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby approving, ratifying and confirming all that such agent, proxy and attorney-in-fact or any of his substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue thereof.

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

 

Title

 

Date

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Maxine Gowen, Ph.D.

 

President, Chief Executive Officer and

 

June 15, 2018

Maxine Gowen, Ph.D.

 

Director (Principal Executive Officer)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ John P. Hamill

 

Principal Financial Officer and
Principal Accounting Officer

 

June 15, 2018

John P. Hamill

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Leon O. Moulder, Jr.

 

Chairman of the Board of Directors

 

June 15, 2018

Leon O. Moulder, Jr.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Michael R. Dougherty

 

Director

 

June 15, 2018

Michael R. Dougherty

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Adam M. Koppel M.D., Ph.D.

 

Director

 

June 15, 2018

Adam M. Koppel M.D., Ph.D.

 

 

 

 

 

II-6



Table of Contents

 

/s/ Julie H. McHugh

 

Director

 

June 15, 2018

Julie H. McHugh

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Jake R. Nunn

 

Director

 

June 15, 2018

Jake R. Nunn

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Anne M. Phillips, M.D.

 

Director

 

June 15, 2018

Anne M. Phillips, M.D.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Barbara Yanni

 

Director

 

June 15, 2018

Barbara Yanni

 

 

 

 

 

II-7


EXHIBIT 4.3

 

TREVENA, INC.,
Iss
uer

 

AND

 

[TRUSTEE],
Trustee

 


 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of            , 20   

 


 

Debt Securities

 



 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

Page

 

 

 

ARTICLE 1

DEFINITIONS

1

 

 

 

Section 1.01

Definitions of Terms

1

 

 

 

ARTICLE 2

ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

5

 

 

 

Section 2.01

Designation and Terms of Securities

5

 

 

 

Section 2.02

Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate

8

 

 

 

Section 2.03

Denominations: Provisions for Payment

8

 

 

 

Section 2.04

Execution and Authentications

10

 

 

 

Section 2.05

Registration of Transfer and Exchange

10

 

 

 

Section 2.06

Temporary Securities

12

 

 

 

Section 2.07

Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities

12

 

 

 

Section 2.08

Cancellation

13

 

 

 

Section 2.09

Benefits of Indenture

13

 

 

 

Section 2.10

Authenticating Agent

13

 

 

 

Section 2.11

Global Securities

14

 

 

 

Section 2.12

CUSIP Numbers

15

 

 

 

ARTICLE 3

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

15

 

 

 

Section 3.01

Redemption

15

 

 

 

Section 3.02

Notice of Redemption

15

 

 

 

Section 3.03

Payment Upon Redemption

17

 

 

 

Section 3.04

Sinking Fund

17

 

 

 

Section 3.05

Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities

17

 

 

 

Section 3.06

Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund

18

 

 

 

ARTICLE 4

COVENANTS

18

 

 

 

Section 4.01

Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest

18

 

 

 

Section 4.02

Maintenance of Office or Agency

18

 

 

 

Section 4.03

Paying Agents

19

 

 

 

Section 4.04

Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee

20

 

 

 

ARTICLE 5

SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

20

 

 

 

Section 5.01

Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders

20

 

i



 

Table of Contents

(continued)

 

 

 

Page

 

 

 

Section 5.02

Preservation Of Information; Communications With Securityholders

20

 

 

 

Section 5.03

Reports by the Company

21

 

 

 

Section 5.04

Reports by the Trustee

21

 

 

 

ARTICLE 6

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

22

 

 

 

Section 6.01

Events of Default

22

 

 

 

Section 6.02

Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee

24

 

 

 

Section 6.03

Application of Moneys Collected

25

 

 

 

Section 6.04

Limitation on Suits

25

 

 

 

Section 6.05

Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver

26

 

 

 

Section 6.06

Control by Securityholders

26

 

 

 

Section 6.07

Undertaking to Pay Costs

27

 

 

 

ARTICLE 7

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

27

 

 

 

Section 7.01

Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee

27

 

 

 

Section 7.02

Certain Rights of Trustee

29

 

 

 

Section 7.03

Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities

31

 

 

 

Section 7.04

May Hold Securities

31

 

 

 

Section 7.05

Moneys Held in Trust

31

 

 

 

Section 7.06

Compensation and Reimbursement

31

 

 

 

Section 7.07

Reliance on Officer’s Certificate

32

 

 

 

Section 7.08

Disqualification; Conflicting Interests

32

 

 

 

Section 7.09

Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility

33

 

 

 

Section 7.10

Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor

33

 

 

 

Section 7.11

Acceptance of Appointment By Successor

34

 

 

 

Section 7.12

Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business

35

 

 

 

Section 7.13

Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company

36

 

 

 

Section 7.14

Notice of Default

36

 

 

 

ARTICLE 8

CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

36

 

 

 

Section 8.01

Evidence of Action by Securityholders

36

 

 

 

Section 8.02

Proof of Execution by Securityholders

37

 

ii



 

Table of Contents

(continued)

 

 

 

Page

 

 

 

Section 8.03

Who May be Deemed Owners

37

 

 

 

Section 8.04

Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded

37

 

 

 

Section 8.05

Actions Binding on Future Securityholders

38

 

 

 

ARTICLE 9

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

38

 

 

 

Section 9.01

Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders

38

 

 

 

Section 9.02

Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders

39

 

 

 

Section 9.03

Effect of Supplemental Indentures

40

 

 

 

Section 9.04

Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures

40

 

 

 

Section 9.05

Execution of Supplemental Indentures

40

 

 

 

ARTICLE 10

SUCCESSOR ENTITY

41

 

 

 

Section 10.01

Company May Consolidate, Etc.

41

 

 

 

Section 10.02

Successor Entity Substituted

41

 

 

 

ARTICLE 11

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE

42

 

 

 

Section 11.01

Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture

42

 

 

 

Section 11.02

Discharge of Obligations

42

 

 

 

Section 11.03

Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust

43

 

 

 

Section 11.04

Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents

43

 

 

 

Section 11.05

Repayment to Company

43

 

 

 

ARTICLE 12

IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS

44

 

 

 

Section 12.01

No Recourse

44

 

 

 

ARTICLE 13

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

44

 

 

 

Section 13.01

Effect on Successors and Assigns

44

 

 

 

Section 13.02

Actions by Successor

44

 

 

 

Section 13.03

Surrender of Company Powers

44

 

 

 

Section 13.04

Notices

45

 

 

 

Section 13.05

Governing Law; Jury Trial Waiver

45

 

 

 

Section 13.06

Treatment of Securities as Debt

45

 

 

 

Section 13.07

Certificates and Opinions as to Conditions Precedent

45

 

 

 

Section 13.08

Payments on Business Days

46

 

iii



 

Table of Contents

(continued)

 

 

 

Page

 

 

 

Section 13.09

Conflict with Trust Indenture Act

46

 

 

 

Section 13.10

Counterparts

46

 

 

 

Section 13.11

Separability

46

 

 

 

Section 13.12

Compliance Certificates

47

 

 

 

Section 13.13

U.S.A Patriot Act

47

 

 

 

Section 13.14

Force Majeure

47

 

 

 

Section 13.15

Table of Contents; Headings

47

 

iv



 

INDENTURE

 

INDENTURE, dated as of        , 20    , among Trevena, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [TRUSTEE], as trustee (the “Trustee”):

 

WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

 

WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

 

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

 

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

 

ARTICLE 1

 

DEFINITIONS

 

Section 1.01                            Definitions of Terms.

 

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular.  All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are by reference in such Act defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

 

Authenticating Agent” means the Trustee or an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

 

Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

 

1



 

Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors (or the functional equivalent thereof) of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.

 

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors (or duly authorized committee thereof) and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

 

Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which federal or state banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City of New York, or in the city of the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

 

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act, or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

 

Company” means Trevena, Inc., a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware, and, subject to the provisions of Article Ten, shall also include its successors and assigns.

 

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at                                                                .

 

Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

 

Defaulted Interest” has the meaning set forth in Section 2.03.

 

Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or 2.11.

 

Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

 

Exchange Act” means the United States Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission thereunder.

 

Global Security” means a Security issued to evidence all or a part of any series of Securities which is executed by the Company and authenticated and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with the Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

 

2



 

Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (a) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (b) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof at any time prior to the stated maturity of the Securities, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

 

herein”, “hereof and “hereunder”, and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

 

Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof and shall include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 2.01.

 

Interest Payment Date”, when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.

 

Officer” means, with respect to the Company, the chairman of the Board of Directors, a chief executive officer, a president, a chief financial officer, a chief operating officer, any executive vice president, any senior vice president, any vice president, the treasurer or any assistant treasurer, the controller or any assistant controller or the secretary or any assistant secretary.

 

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer.  Each such certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing subject to customary exceptions of legal counsel, who may be an employee of or counsel for the Company, that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof.  Each such opinion shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for

 

3



 

cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as provided in Article Three, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07.

 

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, joint-stock company, limited liability company, association, trust, unincorporated organization, any other entity or organization, including a government or political subdivision or an agency or instrumentality thereof.

 

Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a lost, destroyed or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the lost, destroyed or stolen Security.

 

Responsible Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee means any officer within the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee (or any successor group of the Trustee) or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject and in each case who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture.

 

Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture and more particularly means any Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

 

Securityholder”, “holder of Securities”, “registered holder”, or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security is registered on the Security Register kept for that purpose in accordance with the terms of this Indenture.

 

Security Register” and “Security Registrar” shall have the meanings as set forth in Section 2.05.

 

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, any corporation, association, partnership or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of capital stock or other interests (including partnership interests) entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers, general partners or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by (i) such Person; (ii) such

 

4



 

Person and one or more Subsidiaries of such Person; or (iii) one or more Subsidiaries of such Person.

 

Trustee” means                                            , and, subject to the provisions of Article Seven, shall also include its successors and assigns, and, if at any time there is more than one Person acting in such capacity hereunder, “Trustee” shall mean each such Person.  The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

 

Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

 

U.S.A. Patriot Act” means the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107-56, as amended and signed into law October 26, 2001.

 

ARTICLE 2

 

ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

 

Section 2.01                            Designation and Terms of Securities.

 

(a)                                 The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited.  The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto.  Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

 

(1)                                 the title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that series from all other Securities);

 

(2)                                 any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

 

(3)                                 the maturity date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable;

 

(4)                                 the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the certificate of authentication for such series;

 

(5)                                 the applicability of any guarantees;

 

5



 

(6)                                 whether or not the Securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

(7)                                 whether the Securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

 

(8)                                 if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such Securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such Securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

 

(9)                                 the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

(10)                          the Company’s right, if any, to defer the payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

(11)                          if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, the Company may at its option, redeem the series of Securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

 

(12)                          the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which the Company is obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the Securityholder’s option to purchase, the series of Securities and the currency or currency unit in which the Securities are payable;

 

(13)                          the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable, if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof;

 

(14)                          any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the Securities of that series and any security for the obligations of the Company with respect to such Securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that series;

 

(15)                          whether the Securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a Global Security or Securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such Global Security or Securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual Securities; and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities;

 

(16)                          if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it

 

6



 

will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at the Company’s option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange, which may, without limitation, include the payment of cash as well as the delivery of securities;

 

(17)                          if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01;

 

(18)                          additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the series of Securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

 

(19)                          additions to or changes in the Events of Default with respect to the Securities and any change in the right of the Trustee or the Securityholders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such Securities to be due and payable;

 

(20)                          additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

 

(21)                          additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture;

 

(22)                          additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of this Indenture both with and without the consent of Securityholders of Securities issued under this Indenture;

 

(23)                          the currency of payment of Securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

 

(24)                          whether interest will be payable in cash or additional Securities at the Company’s or the Securityholders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

 

(25)                          the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Company shall pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any, and principal amounts of the Securities of the series to any Securityholder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

 

(26)                          any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the Securities of the series; and

 

(27)                          any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the Securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of this Indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

 

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.

 

7



 

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officer’s Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.

 

Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates.

 

Section 2.02                            Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate.

 

The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, and they may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any securities exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.

 

Section 2.03                            Denominations: Provisions for Payment.

 

The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, subject to Section 2.01(a)(13).  The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rate specified with respect to that series.  Subject to Section 2.01(a)(23), the principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption or repurchase thereof prior to maturity, and any cash amount due upon conversion or exchange thereof, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose.  Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.  Interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.

 

The interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment.  In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03.

 

Any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered holder on the relevant regular

 

8



 

record date by virtue of having been such holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:

 

(1)                                 The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner: the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided.  Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment.  The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such special record date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be mailed, first class postage prepaid, to each Securityholder at his or her address as it appears in the Security Register (as hereinafter defined), not less than 10 days prior to such special record date.  Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been mailed as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered on such special record date.

 

(2)                                 The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

 

Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities and any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or the first day of the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.

 

Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.

 

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Section 2.04                            Execution and Authentications.

 

The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by one of its Officers.  Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature.

 

The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been an Officer (at the time of execution), notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be such an officer of the Company.  The Securities may contain such notations, legends or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule or usage.  Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication by the Trustee.

 

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated manually by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent.  Such signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.  At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a written order of the Company for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, signed by an Officer, and the Trustee in accordance with such written order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities.

 

Upon the Company’s delivery of any such authentication order to the Trustee at any time after the initial issuance of Securities under this Indenture, the Trustee shall be provided with, and (subject to Sections 315(a) through 315(d) of the Trust Indenture Act) shall be fully protected in relying upon, (1) an Opinion of Counsel or reliance letter and (2) an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent to the execution, authentication and delivery of such Securities are in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture.

 

The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

 

Section 2.05                            Registration of Transfer and Exchange.

 

(a)                                 Securities of any series may be exchanged upon presentation thereof at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, for other Securities of such series of authorized denominations, and for a like aggregate principal amount, upon payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, all as provided in this Section.  In respect of any Securities so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange therefor the Security or Securities of the same series that the Securityholder making the exchange shall be entitled to receive, bearing numbers not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

(b)                                 The Company shall keep, or cause to be kept, at its office or agency designated for such purpose a register or registers (herein referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall register

 

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the Securities and the transfers of Securities as in this Article provided and which at all reasonable times shall be open for inspection by the Trustee.  The registrar for the purpose of registering Securities and transfer of Securities as herein provided shall be appointed as authorized by Board Resolution (the “Security Registrar”).

 

Upon surrender for transfer of any Security at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series as the Security presented for a like aggregate principal amount.

 

All Securities presented or surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, as provided in this Section, shall be accompanied (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company or the Security Registrar, duly executed by the registered holder or by such holder’s duly authorized attorney in writing.

 

(c)                                  Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, no service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities, or issue of new Securities in case of partial redemption of any series or repurchase, conversion or exchange of less than the entire principal amount of a Security, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 2.06, Section 3.03(b) and Section 9.04 not involving any transfer.

 

(d)                                 The Company shall not be required (i) to issue, exchange or register the transfer of any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the mailing of a notice of redemption of less than all the Outstanding Securities of the same series and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, nor (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of any series or portions thereof called for redemption or surrendered for repurchase, but not validly withdrawn, other than the unredeemed portion of any such Securities being redeemed in part or not surrendered for repurchase, as the case may be.  The provisions of this Section 2.05 are, with respect to any Global Security, subject to Section 2.11 hereof.

 

The Trustee shall have no obligation or duty to monitor, determine or inquire as to compliance with any restrictions on transfer imposed under this Indenture or under applicable law with respect to any transfer of any interest in any Security (including any transfers between or among depositary participants or beneficial owners of interests in any Global Security) other than to require delivery of such certificates and other documentation or evidence as are expressly required by, and to do so if and when expressly required by the terms of, this Indenture, and to examine the same to determine substantial compliance as to form with the express requirements hereof.

 

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Section 2.06                            Temporary Securities.

 

Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities (printed, lithographed or typewritten) of any authorized denomination.  Such temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Company.  Every temporary Security of any series shall be executed by the Company and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities of such series.  Without unnecessary delay the Company will execute and will furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon any or all temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor (without charge to the holders), at the office or agency of the Company designated for the purpose, and the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of such series, unless the Company advises the Trustee to the effect that definitive Securities need not be executed and furnished until further notice from the Company.  Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of such series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series authenticated and delivered hereunder.

 

Section 2.07                            Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities.

 

In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company (subject to the next succeeding sentence) shall execute, and upon the Company’s request the Trustee (subject as aforesaid) shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated Security, or in lieu of and in substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen.  In every case the applicant for a substituted Security shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Company and the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of the applicant’s Security and of the ownership thereof.  The Trustee may authenticate any such substituted Security and deliver the same upon the written request or authorization of any officer of the Company.  Upon the issuance of any substituted Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

 

In case any Security that has matured or is about to mature shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company may, instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as they may require to save them harmless, and, in case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

 

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Every replacement Security issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Company whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be found at any time, or be enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder.  All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any and all other rights or remedies, notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

 

Section 2.08                            Cancellation.

 

All Securities surrendered for the purpose of payment, redemption, repurchase, exchange, registration of transfer or conversion shall, if surrendered to the Company or any paying agent (or any other applicable agent), be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it, and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly required or permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture.  On request of the Company at the time of such surrender, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company canceled Securities held by the Trustee.  In the absence of such request the Trustee may dispose of canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company.  If the Company shall otherwise acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

Section 2.09                            Benefits of Indenture.

 

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and the holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Indenture, or under any covenant, condition or provision herein contained; all such covenants, conditions and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and of the holders of the Securities.

 

Section 2.10                            Authenticating Agent.

 

So long as any of the Securities of any series remain Outstanding there may be an Authenticating Agent for any or all such series of Securities which the Trustee shall have the right to appoint.  Said Authenticating Agent shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, transfer or partial redemption, repurchase or conversion thereof, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder.  All references in this Indenture to the authentication of Securities by the Trustee shall be deemed to include authentication by an Authenticating Agent for such series.  Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall be a corporation that has a combined capital and surplus, as most recently reported or determined by it, sufficient under the laws of any jurisdiction under which it is organized or in which it is doing business to

 

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conduct a trust business, and that is otherwise authorized under such laws to conduct such business and is subject to supervision or examination by federal or state authorities.  If at any time any Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with these provisions, it shall resign immediately.

 

Any Authenticating Agent may at any time resign by giving written notice of resignation to the Trustee and to the Company.  The Trustee may at any time (and upon request by the Company shall) terminate the agency of any Authenticating Agent by giving written notice of termination to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company.  Upon resignation, termination or cessation of eligibility of any Authenticating Agent, the Trustee may appoint an eligible successor Authenticating Agent acceptable to the Company.  Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent pursuant hereto.

 

Section 2.11                            Global Securities.

 

(a)                                 If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.01 that the Securities of a particular series are to be issued as a Global Security, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with Section 2.04, authenticate and deliver, a Global Security that (i) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, all of the Outstanding Securities of such series, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction (or if the Depositary names the Trustee as its custodian, retained by the Trustee), and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.11 of the Indenture, this Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depositary or to a successor Depositary or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

 

(b)                                 Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2.05, the Global Security of a series may be transferred, in whole but not in part and in the manner provided in Section 2.05, only to another nominee of the Depositary for such series, or to a successor Depositary for such series selected or approved by the Company or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.

 

(c)                                  If at any time the Depositary for a series of the Securities notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such series or if at any time the Depositary for such series shall no longer be registered or in good standing under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, and a successor Depositary for such series is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such condition, as the case may be, or if an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing and the Company has received a request from the Depositary or from the Trustee, this Section 2.11 shall no longer be applicable to the Securities of such series and the Company will execute, and subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security.  In addition, the Company may at any time determine that the Securities of any series shall no longer be represented by a Global Security and that the

 

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provisions of this Section 2.11 shall no longer apply to the Securities of such series.  In such event the Company will execute and, subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate evidencing such determination by the Company, will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security.  Upon the exchange of the Global Security for such Securities in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, the Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee.  Such Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for the Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.11(c) shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee.  The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to the Depositary for delivery to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

 

Section 2.12                            CUSIP Numbers.

 

The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers.  The Company will promptly notify the Trustee of any change in the “CUSIP” numbers.

 

ARTICLE 3

 

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

 

Section 3.01                            Redemption.

 

The Company may redeem the Securities of any series issued hereunder on and after the dates and in accordance with the terms established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

 

Section 3.02                            Notice of Redemption.

 

(a)                                 In case the Company shall desire to exercise such right to redeem all or, as the case may be, a portion of the Securities of any series in accordance with any right the Company reserved for itself to do so pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the Company shall, or shall cause the Trustee to, give notice of such redemption to holders of the Securities of such series to be redeemed by mailing, first class postage prepaid (or with regard to any Global Security held in book entry form, by electronic mail), a notice of such redemption not less than 30 days and not more than 90 days before the date fixed for redemption of that series to such holders at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the Security Register, unless a shorter period is specified in

 

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the Securities to be redeemed.  Any notice that is mailed in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the registered holder receives the notice.  In any case, failure duly to give such notice to the holder of any Security of any series designated for redemption in whole or in part, or any defect in the notice, shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Securities of such series or any other series.  In the case of any redemption of Securities prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officer’s Certificate evidencing compliance with any such restriction.

 

Each such notice of redemption shall identify the Securities to be redeemed (including CUSIP numbers, if any), specify the date fixed for redemption and the redemption price at which Securities of that series are to be redeemed, and shall state that payment of the redemption price of such Securities to be redeemed will be made at the office or agency of the Company, upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in said notice, that from and after said date interest will cease to accrue and that the redemption is from a sinking fund, if such is the case.  If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the notice to the holders of Securities of that series to be redeemed in part shall specify the particular Securities to be so redeemed.

 

In case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, the notice that relates to such Security shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed, and shall state that on and after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

 

(b)                                 If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company shall give the Trustee at least 45 days’ notice (unless a shorter notice shall be satisfactory to the Trustee) in advance of the date fixed for redemption as to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of the series to be redeemed, and thereupon the Trustee shall select, by lot or in such other manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair in its discretion and that may provide for the selection of a portion or portions (equal to one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof) of the principal amount of such Securities of a denomination larger than $1,000, the Securities to be redeemed and shall thereafter promptly notify the Company in writing of the numbers of the Securities to be redeemed, in whole or in part.  The Company may, if and whenever it shall so elect, by delivery of instructions signed on its behalf by an Officer, instruct the Trustee or any paying agent to call all or any part of the Securities of a particular series for redemption and to give notice of redemption in the manner set forth in this Section, such notice to be in the name of the Company or its own name as the Trustee or such paying agent may deem advisable.  In any case in which notice of redemption is to be given by the Trustee or any such paying agent, the Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to, or permit to remain with, the Trustee or such paying agent, as the case may be, such Security Register, transfer books or other records, or suitable copies or extracts therefrom, sufficient to enable the Trustee or such paying agent to give any notice by mail that may be required under the provisions of this Section.

 

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Section 3.03                            Payment Upon Redemption.

 

(a)                                 If the giving of notice of redemption shall have been completed as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities of the series to be redeemed specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption and interest on such Securities or portions of Securities shall cease to accrue on and after the date fixed for redemption, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such redemption price and accrued interest with respect to any such Security or portion thereof.  On presentation and surrender of such Securities on or after the date fixed for redemption at the place of payment specified in the notice, said Securities shall be paid and redeemed at the applicable redemption price for such series, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption (but if the date fixed for redemption is an Interest Payment Date, the interest installment payable on such date shall be payable to the registered holder at the close of business on the applicable record date pursuant to Section 2.03).

 

(b)                                 Upon presentation of any Security of such series that is to be redeemed in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and the office or agency where the Security is presented shall deliver to the holder thereof, at the expense of the Company, a new Security of the same series of authorized denominations in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

 

Section 3.04                            Sinking Fund.

 

The provisions of Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06 shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 for Securities of such series.

 

The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment,” and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”.  If provided for by the terms of Securities of any series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 3.05.  Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any series as provided for by the terms of Securities of such series.

 

Section 3.05                            Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

 

The Company (i) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series and (ii) may apply as a credit Securities of a series that have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of such series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as provided for by the terms of such series, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited.  Such Securities shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the redemption price specified in such Securities for

 

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redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.

 

Section 3.06                            Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

 

Not less than 45 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any series of Securities (unless a shorter period shall be satisfactory to the Trustee), the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for that series pursuant to the terms of the series, the portion thereof, if any, that is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities of that series pursuant to Section 3.05 and the basis for such credit and will, together with such Officer’s Certificate, deliver to the Trustee any Securities to be so delivered.  Not less than 30 days before each such sinking fund payment date the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.02.  Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Section 3.03.

 

ARTICLE 4

 

COVENANTS

 

Section 4.01                            Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.

 

The Company will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities of that series at the time and place and in the manner provided herein and established with respect to such Securities. Payments of principal on the Securities may be made at the time provided herein and established with respect to such Securities by U.S. dollar check drawn on and mailed to the address of the Securityholder entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register, or U.S. dollar wire transfer to, a U.S. dollar account if such Securityholder shall have furnished wire instructions to the Trustee no later than 15 days prior to the relevant payment date. Payments of interest on the Securities may be made at the time provided herein and established with respect to such Securities by U.S. dollar check mailed to the address of the Securityholder entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register, or U.S. dollar wire transfer to, a U.S. dollar account if such Securityholder shall have furnished wire instructions in writing to the Security Registrar and the Trustee no later than 15 days prior to the relevant payment date.

 

Section 4.02                            Maintenance of Office or Agency.

 

So long as any series of the Securities remain Outstanding, the Company agrees to maintain an office or agency with respect to each such series and at such other location or locations as may be designated as provided in this Section 4.02, where (i) Securities of that series may be presented for payment, (ii) Securities of that series may be presented as herein above authorized for registration of transfer and exchange, and (iii) notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be given or served, such designation to continue with respect to such office or agency until the Company shall, by

 

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written notice signed by any officer authorized to sign an Officer’s Certificate and delivered to the Trustee, designate some other office or agency for such purposes or any of them.  If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, notices and demands.  The Company initially appoints the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee as its paying agent with respect to the Securities.

 

Section 4.03                            Paying Agents.

 

(a)                                 If the Company shall appoint one or more paying agents for all or any series of the Securities, other than the Trustee, the Company will cause each such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section:

 

(1)                                 that it will hold all sums held by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any other obligor of such Securities) in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto;

 

(2)                                 that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Company (or by any other obligor of such Securities) to make any payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series when the same shall be due and payable;

 

(3)                                 that it will, at any time during the continuance of any failure referred to in the preceding paragraph (a)(2) above, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent; and

 

(4)                                 that it will perform all other duties of paying agent as set forth in this Indenture.

 

(b)                                 If the Company shall act as its own paying agent with respect to any series of the Securities, it will on or before each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on Securities of that series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient to pay such principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due on Securities of that series until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided and will promptly notify the Trustee of such action, or any failure (by it or any other obligor on such Securities) to take such action.  Whenever the Company shall have one or more paying agents for any series of Securities, it will, prior to each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Securities of that series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay the principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such principal, premium or interest, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of this action or failure so to act.

 

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(c)                                  Notwithstanding anything in this Section to the contrary, (i) the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, and (ii) the Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or direct any paying agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such paying agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same terms and conditions as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such paying agent; and, upon such payment by the Company or any paying agent to the Trustee, the Company or such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such money.

 

Section 4.04                            Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee.

 

The Company, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 7.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee hereunder.

 

ARTICLE 5

SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

 

Section 5.01                            Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders.

 

The Company will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee (a) within 15 days after each regular record date (as defined in Section 2.03) a list, in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of the holders of each series of Securities as of such regular record date, provided that the Company shall not be obligated to furnish or cause to furnish such list at any time that the list shall not differ in any respect from the most recent list furnished to the Trustee by the Company and (b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished; provided, however, that, in either case, no such list need be furnished for any series for which the Trustee shall be the Security Registrar.

 

Section 5.02                            Preservation Of Information; Communications With Securityholders.

 

(a)                                 The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity).

 

(b)                                 The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

 

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(c)                                  Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities, and, in connection with any such communications, the Trustee shall satisfy its obligations under Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the provisions of Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Section 5.03                            Reports by the Company.

 

(a)                                 The Company will at all times comply with Section 314(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.  The Company covenants and agrees to provide (which delivery may be via electronic mail) to the Trustee within 30 days, after the Company files the same with the Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Commission may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) that the Company is required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; provided, however, the Company shall not be required to deliver to the Trustee any correspondence filed with the Commission or any materials for which the Company has sought and received confidential treatment by the Commission; and provided further, that so long as such filings by the Company are available on the Commission’s Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval System (EDGAR), or any successor system, such filings shall be deemed to have been filed with the Trustee for purposes hereof without any further action required by the Company. For the avoidance of doubt, a failure by the Company to file annual reports, information and other reports with the SEC within the time period prescribed thereof by the Commission shall not be deemed a breach of this Section 5.03.

 

(b)                                 Delivery of reports, information and documents to the Trustee under Section 5.03 is for informational purposes only and the information and the Trustee’s receipt of the foregoing shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein, or determinable from information contained therein including the Company’s compliance with any of their covenants thereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on an Officer’s Certificate).  The Trustee is under no duty to examine any such reports, information or documents delivered to the Trustee or filed with the SEC via EDGAR to ensure compliance with the provision of this Indenture or to ascertain the correctness or otherwise of the information or the statements contained therein.  The Trustee shall have no responsibility or duty whatsoever to ascertain or determine whether the above referenced filings with the SEC on EDGAR (or any successor system) has occurred.

 

Section 5.04                            Reports by the Trustee.

 

(a)                                 If required by Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee, within sixty (60) days after each May 1, shall transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register, a brief report dated as of such May 1, which complies with Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(b)                                 The Trustee shall comply with Section 313(b) and 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

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(c)                                  A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Securityholders, be filed by the Trustee with the Company, with each securities exchange upon which any Securities are listed (if so listed) and also with the Commission.  The Company agrees to notify the Trustee when any Securities become listed on any securities exchange.

 

ARTICLE 6

 

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

 

Section 6.01                            Events of Default.

 

(a)                                 Whenever used herein with respect to Securities of a particular series, “Event of Default” means any one or more of the following events that has occurred and is continuing:

 

(1)                                 the Company defaults in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of that series, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by the Company in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

(2)                                 the Company defaults in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such Securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

(3)                                 the Company fails to observe or perform any other of its covenants or agreements with respect to that series contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to that series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof (other than a covenant or agreement that has been expressly included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of one or more series of Securities other than such series) for a period of 90 days after the date on which written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder, shall have been given to the Company by the Trustee, by registered or certified mail, or to the Company and the Trustee by the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Securities of that series at the time Outstanding;

 

(4)                                 the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law (i) commences a voluntary case, (ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case, (iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property or (iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or

 

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(5)                                 a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order under any Bankruptcy Law that (i) is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case, (ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company for all or substantially all of its property or (iii) orders the liquidation of the Company, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 days.

 

(b)                                 In each and every such case (other than an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above), unless the principal of all the Securities of that series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by such Securityholders), may declare the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable.  If an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above occurs, the principal of and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series shall automatically be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or the holders of the Securities.

 

(c)                                  At any time after the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on the Securities of that series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if: (i) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of that series and the principal of (and premium, if any, on) any and all Securities of that series that shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such principal and premium, if any, and, to the extent that such payment is enforceable under applicable law, upon overdue installments of interest, at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series to the date of such payment or deposit) and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06, and (ii) any and all Events of Default under the Indenture with respect to such series, other than the nonpayment of principal on (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on Securities of that series that shall not have become due by their terms, shall have been remedied or waived as provided in Section 6.06.

 

No such rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

(d)                                 In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right with respect to Securities of that series under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned because of such rescission or annulment or for any other reason or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceedings, the Company and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Company and the Trustee shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.

 

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Section 6.02                            Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

 

(a)                                 The Company covenants that (i) in case it shall default in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of a series, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series as and when the same shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 90 days, or (ii) in case it shall default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of a series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of a series or upon redemption or upon declaration or otherwise then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Company will pay to the Trustee, for the benefit of the holders of the Securities of that series, the whole amount that then shall have been become due and payable on all such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) or interest, or both, as the case may be, with interest upon the overdue principal (and premium, if any) and (to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law) upon overdue installments of interest at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series; and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06.

 

(b)                                 If the Company shall fail to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series and collect the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law or equity out of the property of the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series, wherever situated.

 

(c)                                  In case of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, readjustment, arrangement, composition or judicial proceedings affecting the Company, or its creditors or property, the Trustee shall have power to intervene in such proceedings and take any action therein that may be permitted by the court and shall (except as may be otherwise provided by law) be entitled to file such proofs of claim and other papers and documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee and of the holders of Securities of such series allowed for the entire amount due and payable by the Company under the Indenture at the date of institution of such proceedings and for any additional amount that may become due and payable by the Company after such date, and to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claim, and to distribute the same after the deduction of the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and any receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization is hereby authorized by each of the holders of Securities of such series to make such payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to such Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it under Section 7.06.

 

(d)                                 All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the terms established with respect to Securities of that series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of such Securities, or the production thereof at any trial or other proceeding relative thereto, and any such suit or proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall

 

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be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for payment to the Trustee of any amounts due under Section 7.06, be for the ratable benefit of the holders of the Securities of such series.

 

In case of an Event of Default hereunder, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any of such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in the Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture, or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.

 

Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of that series or the rights of any holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding.

 

Section 6.03                            Application of Moneys Collected.

 

Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article with respect to a particular series of Securities shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, upon presentation of the Securities of that series, and notation thereon of the payment, if only partially paid, and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

FIRST: To the payment of costs and expenses of collection and of all amounts payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06;

 

SECOND: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid upon Securities of such series for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, respectively; and

 

THIRD: To the payment of the remainder, if any, to the Company or any other Person lawfully entitled thereto.

 

Section 6.04                            Limitation on Suits.

 

No holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to institute any suit, action or proceeding in equity or at law upon or under or with respect to this Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless (i) such holder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of an Event of Default and of the continuance thereof with respect to the Securities of such series specifying such Event of Default, as hereinbefore provided; (ii) the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have

 

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made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action, suit or proceeding in its own name as Trustee hereunder; (iii) such holder or holders shall have offered to the Trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred in compliance with such request; (iv) the Trustee for 90 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity, shall have failed to institute any such action, suit or proceeding and (v) during such 90 day period, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series do not give the Trustee a direction inconsistent with the request.

 

Notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary or any other provisions of this Indenture, the right of any holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Security, as therein provided, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security (or in the case of redemption, on the redemption date), or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates or redemption date, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such holder and by accepting a Security hereunder it is expressly understood, intended and covenanted by the taker and holder of every Security of such series with every other such taker and holder and the Trustee, that no one or more holders of Securities of such series shall have any right in any manner whatsoever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of the holders of any other of such Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such holder, or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all holders of Securities of such series.  For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

 

Section 6.05                            Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

 

(a)                                 Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.07, all powers and remedies given by this Article to the Trustee or to the Securityholders shall, to the extent permitted by law, be deemed cumulative and not exclusive of any other powers and remedies available to the Trustee or the holders of the Securities, by judicial proceedings or otherwise, to enforce the performance or observance of the covenants and agreements contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to such Securities.

 

(b)                                 No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any holder of any of the Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power, or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such default or an acquiescence therein; and, subject to the provisions of Section 6.04, every power and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or the Securityholders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Securityholders.

 

Section 6.06                            Control by Securityholders.

 

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee,

 

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or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to such series; provided, however, that such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture or subject the Trustee in its sole discretion to personal liability.  Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer or officers of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed, subject to the Trustee’s duties under the Trust Indenture Act, would involve the Trustee in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the Securityholders not involved in the proceeding.  The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding affected thereby, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, may on behalf of the holders of all of the Securities of such series waive any past default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.01 with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities otherwise than by acceleration (unless such default has been cured and a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest and principal and any premium has been deposited with the Trustee (in accordance with Section 6.01(c)).  Upon any such waiver, the default covered thereby shall be deemed to be cured for all purposes of this Indenture and the Company, the Trustee and the holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

Section 6.07                            Undertaking to Pay Costs.

 

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each holder of any Securities by such holder’s acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees and expenses, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder, or group of Securityholders, holding more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

 

ARTICLE 7

 

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

 

Section 7.01                            Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee.

 

(a)                                 The Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing of all Events of Default with respect to the Securities of that series that may have occurred, shall undertake to perform with respect to the

 

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Securities of such series such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee.  In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (that has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs.

 

(b)                                 No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:

 

(i)                                    prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing or waiving of all such Events of Default with respect to that series that may have occurred:

 

(A)                               the duties and obligations of the Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of such series be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to the Securities of such series except for the performance of such duties and obligations as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and

 

(B)                               in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may with respect to the Securities of such series conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions that by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture;

 

(ii)                                the Trustee shall not be liable to any Securityholder or to any other Person for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

 

(iii)                            the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of that series;

 

(iv)                             none of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers if there is reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or liability is not reasonably assured to it under the terms of this Indenture or adequate indemnity against such risk is not reasonably assured to it;

 

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(v)                                 The Trustee shall not be required to give any bond or surety in respect of the performance of its powers or duties hereunder;

 

(vi)                             The permissive right of the Trustee to do things enumerated in this Indenture shall not be construed as a duty of the Trustee; and

 

(vii)                         No Trustee shall have any duty or responsibility for any act or omission of any other Trustee appointed with respect to a series of Securities hereunder.

 

Section 7.02                            Certain Rights of Trustee.

 

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01:

 

(a)                                 The Trustee may conclusively rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

 

(b)                                 Any request, direction, order or demand of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution or an instrument signed in the name of the Company by any authorized officer of the Company (unless other evidence in respect thereof is specifically prescribed herein);

 

(c)                                  The Trustee may consult with counsel and the opinion or written advice of such counsel or, if requested, any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken or suffered or omitted hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;

 

(d)                                 The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee security or indemnity reasonably acceptable to the Trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities that may be incurred therein or thereby; nothing contained herein shall, however, relieve the Trustee of the obligation, upon the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to a series of the Securities (that has not been cured or waived), to exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and to use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs;

 

(e)                                  The Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion or rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

 

(f)                                   The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security, or other papers or documents or inquire as to the performance by the Company of one of its covenants under this Indenture, unless requested in

 

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writing so to do by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of the particular series affected thereby (determined as provided in Section 8.04); provided, however, that if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require security or indemnity reasonably acceptable to the Trustee against such costs, expenses or liabilities as a condition to so proceeding.  The reasonable expense of every such examination shall be paid by the Company or, if paid by the Trustee, shall be repaid by the Company upon demand;

 

(g)                                 The Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder;

 

(h)                                 In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including, without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services; it being understood that the Trustee shall use reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances;

 

(i)                                    In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for special, indirect, punitive or consequential loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including, but not limited to, loss of profit) irrespective of whether the Trustee has been advised of the likelihood of such loss or damage and regardless of the form of action; and

 

(j)                                    The Trustee agrees to accept and act upon instructions or directions pursuant to this Indenture sent by unsecured e-mail, facsimile transmission or other similar unsecured electronic methods; provided, however, that (a) the party providing such written instructions, subsequent to such transmission of written instructions, shall provide the originally executed instructions or directions to the Trustee in a timely manner, and (b) such originally executed instructions or directions shall be signed by an authorized representative of the party providing such instructions or directions.  If the party elects to give the Trustee e-mail or facsimile instructions (or instructions by a similar electronic method) and the Trustee in its discretion elects to act upon such instructions, the Trustee’s understanding of such instructions shall be deemed controlling.  The Trustee shall not be liable for any losses, costs or expenses arising directly or indirectly from the Trustee’s reliance upon and compliance with such instructions notwithstanding such instructions conflict or are inconsistent with a subsequent written instruction.  The party providing electronic instructions agrees to assume all risks arising out of the use of such electronic methods to submit instructions and directions to the Trustee, including without limitation the risk of the Trustee acting on unauthorized instructions, and the risk or interception and misuse by third parties.  The Trustee may request that the Company deliver an Officer’s Certificate setting forth the names of individuals and/or titles of officers

 

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authorized at such time to furnish the Trustee with Officer’s Certificates, Company Orders and any other matters or directions pursuant to this Indenture.

 

(k)                                 The rights, privileges, protections, immunities and benefits given to the Trustee, including, without limitation, its right to be indemnified, are extended to, and shall be enforceable by, the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder.

 

(l)                                    The Trustee shall not be deemed to have knowledge of any Default or Event of Default (other than an Event of Default relating to the failure to pay the interest on, or the principal of, the Securities) until the Trustee shall have received written notification in the manner set forth in this Indenture or a Responsible Officer of the Trustee shall have obtained actual knowledge.

 

Section 7.03                            Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities.

 

(a)                                 The recitals contained herein and in the Securities shall be taken as the statements of the Company, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same.  The Trustee shall not be responsible for any statement in any registration statement, prospectus, or any other document in connection with the sale of Securities. The Trustee shall not be responsible for any rating on the Securities or any action or omission of any rating agency.

 

(b)                                 The Trustee makes no representations as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities.

 

(c)                                  The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Company of any of the Securities or of the proceeds of such Securities, or for the use or application of any moneys paid over by the Trustee in accordance with any provision of this Indenture or established pursuant to Section 2.01, or for the use or application of any moneys received by any paying agent other than the Trustee.

 

Section 7.04                            May Hold Securities.

 

The Trustee or any paying agent or Security Registrar, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee, paying agent or Security Registrar.

 

Section 7.05                            Moneys Held in Trust.

 

Subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.  The Trustee shall be under no liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder except such as it may agree with the Company to pay thereon.

 

Section 7.06                            Compensation and Reimbursement.

 

(a)                                 The Company shall pay to the Trustee for each of its capacities hereunder from time to time compensation for its services as the Company and the Trustee shall from time

 

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to time agree upon in writing.  The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust.  The Company shall reimburse the Trustee upon request for all reasonable out-of-pocket expenses incurred by it.  Such expenses shall include the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel.

 

(b)                                 The Company shall indemnify each of the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder against any loss, liability or expense (including the cost of defending itself and including the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel) incurred by it except as set forth in Section 7.06(c) in the exercise or performance of its powers, rights or duties under this Indenture as Trustee or Agent.  The Trustee shall notify the Company promptly of any claim for which it may seek indemnity.  The Company shall defend the claim and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense.  The Trustee may have one separate counsel and the Company shall pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel.  The Company need not pay for any settlement made without its consent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld.  This indemnification shall apply to officers, directors, employees, shareholders and agents of the Trustee.

 

(c)                                  The Company need not reimburse any expense or indemnify against any loss or liability incurred by the Trustee or by any officer, director, employee, shareholder or agent of the Trustee through negligence or bad faith.

 

(d)                                 To ensure the Company’s payment obligations in this Section, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities on all funds or property held or collected by the Trustee, except that held in trust to pay principal of or interest on particular Securities.  When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services in connection with an Event of Default specified in Section 6.01(4) or (5), the expenses (including the reasonable fees and expenses of its counsel) and the compensation for services in connection therewith are to constitute expenses of administration under any bankruptcy law.  The provisions of this Section 7.06 shall survive the termination of this Indenture and the resignation or removal of the Trustee.

 

Section 7.07                            Reliance on Officer’s Certificate.

 

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01, whenever in the administration of the provisions of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it reasonably necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting to take any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof.

 

Section 7.08                            Disqualification; Conflicting Interests.

 

If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Company shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

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Section 7.09                            Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility.

 

There shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to the Securities issued hereunder which shall at all times be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America or any state or territory thereof or of the District of Columbia, or a corporation or other Person permitted to act as trustee by the Commission, authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers, having a combined capital and surplus of at least fifty million U.S. dollars ($50,000,000), and subject to supervision or examination by federal, state, territorial, or District of Columbia authority.

 

If such corporation or other Person publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of the aforesaid supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation or other Person shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published.  The Company may not, nor may any Person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the Company, serve as Trustee.  In case at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in Section 7.10.

 

Section 7.10                            Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor.

 

(a)                                 The Trustee or any successor hereafter appointed may at any time resign with respect to the Securities of one or more series by giving written notice thereof to the Company and by transmitting notice of resignation by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders of such series, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register.  Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee.  If no successor trustee shall have been so appointed and have accepted appointment within 30 days after the mailing of such notice of resignation, the resigning Trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series, or any Securityholder of that series who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor trustee.  Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor trustee.

 

(b)                                 In case at any time any one of the following shall occur:

 

(i)                                    the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 7.08 after written request therefor by the Company or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months; or

 

(ii)                                the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 7.09 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Company or by any such Securityholder; or

 

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(iii)                            the Trustee shall become incapable of acting, or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent, or commence a voluntary bankruptcy proceeding, or a receiver of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed or consented to, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation;

 

then, in any such case, the Company may remove the Trustee with respect to all Securities and appoint a successor trustee by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the successor trustee, or any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may, on behalf of that holder and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee.  Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

 

(c)                                  The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to such series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company and may appoint a successor Trustee for such series with the consent of the Company.

 

(d)                                 Any resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of a series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 7.11.

 

(e)                                  Any successor trustee appointed pursuant to this Section may be appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more series or all of such series, and at any time there shall be only one Trustee with respect to the Securities of any particular series.

 

Section 7.11                            Acceptance of Appointment By Successor.

 

(a)                                 In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to all Securities, every such successor trustee so appointed shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and to the retiring Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee; but, on the request of the Company or the successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall, upon payment of its charges, execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor trustee all the rights, powers, and trusts of the retiring Trustee and shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder.

 

(b)                                 In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the retiring Trustee and each successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto wherein each successor trustee shall accept such appointment and which (i) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to transfer and confirm

 

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to, and to vest in, each successor trustee all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates, (ii) shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series as to which the retiring Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the retiring Trustee, and (iii) shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such Trustees co-trustees of the same trust, that each such Trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts hereunder separate and apart from any trust or trusts hereunder administered by any other such Trustee and that no Trustee shall be responsible for any act or failure to act on the part of any other Trustee hereunder; and upon the execution and delivery of such supplemental indenture the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective to the extent provided therein, such retiring Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates have no further responsibility for the exercise of rights and powers or for the performance of the duties and obligations vested in the Trustee under this Indenture, and each such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates; but, on request of the Company or any successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee, to the extent contemplated by such supplemental indenture, the property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates.

 

(c)                                  Upon request of any such successor trustee, the Company shall execute any and all instruments for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor trustee all such rights, powers and trusts referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) of this Section, as the case may be.

 

(d)                                 No successor trustee shall accept its appointment unless at the time of such acceptance such successor trustee shall be qualified and eligible under this Article.

 

(e)                                  Upon acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee as provided in this Section, the Company shall transmit notice of the succession of such trustee hereunder by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register.  If the Company fails to transmit such notice within ten days after acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee, the successor trustee shall cause such notice to be transmitted at the expense of the Company.

 

Section 7.12                            Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business.

 

Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to all or substantially all the corporate trust business of the Trustee, including the administration of the trust created by this Indenture, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder, provided that such corporation shall be

 

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qualified under the provisions of Section 7.08 and eligible under the provisions of Section 7.09, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding.  In case any Securities shall have been authenticated, but not delivered, by the Trustee then in office, any successor by merger, conversion or consolidation to such authenticating Trustee may adopt such authentication and deliver the Securities so authenticated with the same effect as if such successor Trustee had itself authenticated such Securities.

 

Section 7.13                            Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company.

 

The Trustee shall comply with Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, excluding any creditor relationship described in Section 311(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.  A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act to the extent included therein.

 

Section 7.14                            Notice of Default.

 

If any Event of Default occurs and is continuing and if such Event of Default is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder in the manner and to the extent provided in Section 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act notice of the Event of Default within the earlier of 90 days after it occurs and 30 days after it is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee or written notice of it is received by the Trustee, unless such Event of Default has been cured; provided, however, that, except in the case of a default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the Responsible Officers of the Trustee in good faith determine that the withholding of such notice is in the interest of the Securityholders.

 

ARTICLE 8

 

CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

 

Section 8.01                            Evidence of Action by Securityholders.

 

Whenever in this Indenture it is provided that the holders of a majority or specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series may take any action (including the making of any demand or request, the giving of any notice, consent or waiver or the taking of any other action), the fact that at the time of taking any such action the holders of such majority or specified percentage of that series have joined therein may be evidenced by any instrument or any number of instruments of similar tenor executed by such holders of Securities of that series in person or by agent or proxy appointed in writing.

 

If the Company shall solicit from the Securityholders of any series any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, the Company may, at its option, as evidenced by an Officer’s Certificate, fix in advance a record date for such series for the determination of Securityholders entitled to give such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, but the Company shall have no obligation to do so.  If such a record date is fixed, such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent,

 

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waiver or other action may be given before or after the record date, but only the Securityholders of record at the close of business on the record date shall be deemed to be Securityholders for the purposes of determining whether Securityholders of the requisite proportion of Outstanding Securities of that series have authorized or agreed or consented to such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, and for that purpose the Outstanding Securities of that series shall be computed as of the record date; provided, however, that no such authorization, agreement or consent by such Securityholders on the record date shall be deemed effective unless it shall become effective pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture not later than six months after the record date.

 

Section 8.02                            Proof of Execution by Securityholders.

 

Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, proof of the execution of any instrument by a Securityholder (such proof will not require notarization) or his or her agent or proxy and proof of the holding by any Person of any of the Securities shall be sufficient if made in the following manner:

 

(a)                                 The fact and date of the execution by any such Person of any instrument may be proved in any reasonable manner acceptable to the Trustee.

 

(b)                                 The ownership of Securities shall be proved by the Security Register of such Securities or by a certificate of the Security Registrar thereof.

 

The Trustee may require such additional proof of any matter referred to in this Section as it shall deem necessary.

 

Section 8.03                            Who May be Deemed Owners.

 

Prior to the due presentment for registration of transfer of any Security, the Company, the Trustee, any paying agent and any Security Registrar may deem and treat the Person in whose name such Security shall be registered upon the books of the Security Registrar as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notice of ownership or writing thereon made by anyone other than the Security Registrar) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the principal of, premium, if any, and (subject to Section 2.03) interest on such Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Company nor the Trustee nor any paying agent nor any Security Registrar shall be affected by any notice to the contrary.

 

Section 8.04                            Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded.

 

In determining whether the holders of the requisite aggregate principal amount of Securities of a particular series have concurred in any direction, consent or waiver under this Indenture, the Securities of that series that are owned by the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series or by any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination, except that for the purpose of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected

 

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in relying on any such direction, consent or waiver, only Securities of such series that the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded.  The Securities so owned that have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding for the purposes of this Section, if the pledgee shall establish to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not a Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Company or any such other obligor.  In case of a dispute as to such right, any decision by the Trustee taken upon the advice of counsel shall be full protection to the Trustee.

 

Section 8.05                            Actions Binding on Future Securityholders.

 

At any time prior to (but not after) the evidencing to the Trustee, as provided in Section 8.01, of the taking of any action by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action, any holder of a Security of that series that is shown by the evidence to be included in the Securities the holders of which have consented to such action may, by filing written notice with the Trustee, and upon proof of holding as provided in Section 8.02, revoke such action so far as concerns such Security.  Except as aforesaid any such action taken by the holder of any Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such holder and upon all future holders and owners of such Security, and of any Security issued in exchange therefor, on registration of transfer thereof or in place thereof, irrespective of whether or not any notation in regard thereto is made upon such Security.  Any action taken by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action shall be conclusively binding upon the Company, the Trustee and the holders of all the Securities of that series.

 

ARTICLE 9

 

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

 

Section 9.01                            Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders.

 

In addition to any supplemental indenture otherwise authorized by this Indenture, the Company and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect), without the consent of the Securityholders, for one or more of the following purposes:

 

(a)                                 to cure any ambiguity, defect, or inconsistency herein or in the Securities of any series;

 

(b)                                 to comply with Article Ten;

 

(c)                                  to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities;

 

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(d)                                 to add to the covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions relating to the Company for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of Securities (and if such covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions are to be for the benefit of less than all series of Securities, stating that such covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions are expressly being included solely for the benefit of such series), to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an Event of Default, or to surrender any right or power herein conferred upon the Company;

 

(e)                                  to add to, delete from, or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication, and delivery of Securities, as herein set forth;

 

(f)                                   to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder in any material respect;

 

(g)                                 to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the Securities of any series as provided in Section 2.01, to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of this Indenture or any series of Securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of Securities;

 

(h)                                 to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor trustee; or

 

(i)                                    to comply with any requirements of the Commission or any successor in connection with the qualification of this Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

 

The Trustee is hereby authorized to join with the Company in the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations that may be therein contained, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture that affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

 

Any supplemental indenture authorized by the provisions of this Section may be executed by the Company and the Trustee without the consent of the holders of any of the Securities at the time Outstanding, notwithstanding any of the provisions of Section 9.02.

 

Section 9.02                            Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders.

 

With the consent (evidenced as provided in Section 8.01) of the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of each series affected by such supplemental indenture or indentures at the time Outstanding, the Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect) for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner not covered by Section 9.01 the rights of the holders of the Securities of such series under this Indenture; provided, however, that no such supplemental

 

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indenture shall, without the consent of the holders of each Security then Outstanding and affected thereby, (a) extend the fixed maturity of any Securities of any series, or reduce the principal amount thereof, or reduce the rate or extend the time of payment of interest thereon, or reduce any premium payable upon the redemption thereof or (b) reduce the aforesaid percentage of Securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any such supplemental indenture.

 

It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Securityholders of any series affected thereby under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such consent shall approve the substance thereof.

 

Section 9.03                            Effect of Supplemental Indentures.

 

Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Section 10.01, this Indenture shall, with respect to such series, be and be deemed to be modified and amended in accordance therewith and the respective rights, limitations of rights, obligations, duties and immunities under this Indenture of the Trustee, the Company and the holders of Securities of the series affected thereby shall thereafter be determined, exercised and enforced hereunder subject in all respects to such modifications and amendments, and all the terms and conditions of any such supplemental indenture shall be and be deemed to be part of the terms and conditions of this Indenture for any and all purposes.

 

Section 9.04                            Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures.

 

Securities of any series affected by a supplemental indenture, authenticated and delivered after the execution of such supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Section 10.01, may bear a notation in form approved by the Company, provided such form meets the requirements of any securities exchange upon which such series may be listed, as to any matter provided for in such supplemental indenture.  If the Company shall so determine, new Securities of that series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Board of Directors, to any modification of this Indenture contained in any such supplemental indenture may be prepared by the Company, authenticated by the Trustee and delivered in exchange for the Securities of that series then Outstanding.

 

Section 9.05                            Execution of Supplemental Indentures.

 

Upon the request of the Company, accompanied by its Board Resolutions authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the filing with the Trustee of evidence of the consent of Securityholders required to consent thereto as aforesaid, the Trustee shall join with the Company in the exec